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  • A promising route to the scalable production of highly crystalline graphene films

    Researchers discovered a procedure to restore defective graphene oxide structures that cause the material to display low carrier mobility. By applying a high-temperature reduction treatment in an ethanol environment, defective structures were restored, leading to the formation of a highly crystallin more

  • Pushing a single-molecule switch

    Everybody knows the force that is required to activate a light switch on a wall - a finger is enough. But how much force do you need to apply if the device was dramatically reduced to the "nanoscale world", that is, how much force do you need to operate a "single-molecule switch"? This fundamental q more

  • Molecular switch for controlling color and fluorescence

    A collaboration of researchers from Kumamoto, Yamaguchi, and Osaka Universities in Japan have discovered a new method of drastically changing the color and fluorescence of a particular compound using only oxygen (O2) and hydrogen (H2) gases. The fully reversible reaction is environmentally friendly more

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  • US Deficit Reduction Plans Affecting Profitability of the Petrochemical Industry

    Introduction A recent energy speech by US president Barack Obama outlining government intentions to increase fossil fuel tax – citing the fiscal deficit and political unrest in the Middle East as reasons and rejecting the solution of increased domestic crude oil production – has evoked a strong re more

  • Monomer World - May 2011

    Introduction The global monomer industry experienced a significant reduction in demand for downstream derivatives in May 2011. In most regions, this reduced demand caused the prices of monomers to significantly decrease. Shell’s Pulau Bukom (Singapore) ethylene and propylene unit are operational on more

  • Global and China 1,4-Butanediol (BDO) Industry Report, 2010-2011

    1, 4-butanediol (BDO) is an important raw material for basic organic chemicals and fine chemicals. Subject to the financial crisis, the global BDO capacity has showed sluggish growth, up merely 3.7% year on year in 2010. Due to high technology thresholds and limited raw material sources, the BDO pro more

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Birch reduction

Birch reduction The Birch reduction is the organic reduction of aromatic rings with sodium in liquid ammonia to form 1,4-cyclohexadienes. The reaction was reported by the Australian chemist Arthur John Birch (1915 –1995 ) in 1944 . Rea ... more


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