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14 Current white paper about the topic water

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Measuring environmental impact: Elix® system water purification vs. a distillation apparatus

11-12-2013

Long-term environmental sustainability and continued reduction in the consumption of non-renewable raw materials is increasingly important for laboratories everywhere. This work compares the effect on the environment of an Elix® 3 water purification system* with that of a distillation system in terms of environmental impacts concerning energy, water, and global warming potential (GWP)....

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Battling Corrosion in Refineries

With the Power of In-line Analysis

26-04-2011

Corrosion in refinery operations has been, and still is, the subject of many studies, papers, courses and web forums. Although a lot of what has been written shows that significant progress in understanding corrosion has been made, it also makes it clear that the problem continues to exist and that quite possibly is getting worse...

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Structural and Chemical 3D Imaging with AFM and Raman.

12-10-2010

In the Life Sciences and Bio-medical Research, the characterization of chemical compounds within cells or tissues is one of the most important and difficult tasks for researchers to perform. The development of pharmaceuticals such as drug delivery coatings or capsules also requires as much information as possible about their chemical and structural compositions. For the fields of nanotechnology and materials science, a thorough knowledge of the samples' surface morphology on a sub-micron scale is essential...

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Sniffing Out the Secrets of Social Behavior

Prof. Marc Spehr on the New Understanding of Olfactory Neurosensorics

20-09-2010

In his novel "Perfume - the Story of a Murderer", Patrick Süskind managed to put the power of odors into words better than anyone before him. It may be a fascinating idea, but no one will ever be able to create the perfect fragrance that makes a person irresistibly attractive. In the animal world, on the other hand, olfactory signals are an essential element of social communication. Yet we are only just beginning to understand the complexities and functional differences of the sense of smell in mammals. Professor Marc Spehr is leading the Department of Chemosensation at RWTH Aachen University since 2009, where he is conducting research on the neuronal mechanisms of olfactory perception and signal processing using the mouse model. In his experiments, he and his team are trying to find out how substances for social interaction are perceived and how this perception generates a specific type of behavior...

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Size and element specific determination of Ag nanoparticles in consumer spray products using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to ICPMS

10-09-2010

The use of nanoparticles in consumer products shows a tremendous increase over the past years. A study of the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars reported that between 2005 and today the number of products based on nanoparticles increased almost twentyfold from 54 to 1015. As active compounds these products contain ZnO for surface protection, TiO2 for sun screen or Ag for anti-bacterial purposes, only to name a few applications. Furthermore, Si, C and Au are frequently used. So far, no data are available concerning the release and the behaviour of nanoparticles during the spray process. Therefore, in spite of their beneficial properties, possible risks for humans and the environment need to be thoroughly investigated. Especially the exposure pathway via the lung seems to be very critical, as could be shown in a study recently published in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research...

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Particle sizing with static laser scattering

27-08-2010

When determining particle sizes a wide variety of techniques are used in which sieving may be the most popular. Sieving is a relatively simple technique, despite the fact that of course different instrumental approaches can be used. The main advantages of sieving are the low price of the instrumentation and the fact that different fractions of the original sample can be prepared for further use. On the other hand, sieving is very time consuming and yields results only for a very limited number of particle sizes. Results from sieving typically vary due to several factors: the method of moving the sieve, the period of operation, the number of particles on the sieve and some physical properties such as shape or stickiness of the sample. In addition, the actual size of the mesh gaps of the sieves can have large variations from the nominal size...

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Application of the Amplifluor® SNPs Genotyping System using a FLUOstar OPTIMA microplate reader

16-06-2010

The detection of SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) is an important tool for researchers in order to find mutations in DNA sequences. In this application note we describe a homogeneous fluorescence assay based on PCR. The Amplifluor® SNPs HT Genotyping System from Millipore was used to screen a number of samples with the help of the FLUOstar OPTIMA multidetection microplate reader from BMG LABTECH...

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Calculating VOCs: Not all Low-VOCs Are Considered Equal

20-11-2009

Like most coatings, paints, and maintenance products, water repellents are expected to comply with increasingly stringent regulations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC), which are any volatile carbon compounds that engage in atmospheric photochemical reactions. The simplest example of a VOC would be a solvent or drying aid. Common examples include alcohols (such as IPA), mineral spirits, kerosene, toluene or xylene. The only compounds that have been exempt from regulations are those that have shown negligible photochemical reactivity, such as volatile methyl siloxanes, acetone, and tertiary butyl acetate. Conflicts between application specifications that require higher VOC products and tightening regulation standards pose a challenge to the market...

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Burn injuries under freezing (labor protection) conditions?

Optimal protection when handling cryogenic liquefied gases

28-10-2009

"A little splash of liquid nitrogen hasn't hurt anybody" - this happens to be a widespread opinion in many laboratories. The real dangers connected to cryogenic gases many people had to learn firsthand, unexpected and painful. Skin irritation, cell and tissue damage or severe burn injuries may occur, depending on the type of contact and exposure time. There are less possibilities of medical treatment than for injuries caused by influence of heat...

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Bearing grease selection

03-09-2009

Rolling-element bearings are used for the precise guidance of moving parts. Frictional losses are extremely small because the bearings rest on rolling elements, enabling very heavy loads to be adsorbed. Rolling-element bearings may be lubricated with greases or oils depending on the point of use. Lubrication is necessary to prevent direct metallic contact between rolling elements and bearing rings, thereby preventing wear due to welding, friction, material fatigue or corrosion...

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