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14 Current white paper about the topic water

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Measuring environmental impact: Elix® system water purification vs. a distillation apparatus

11-12-2013

Long-term environmental sustainability and continued reduction in the consumption of non-renewable raw materials is increasingly important for laboratories everywhere. This work compares the effect on the environment of an Elix® 3 water purification system* with that of a distillation system in terms of environmental impacts concerning energy, water, and global warming potential (GWP)....

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New since 5000 years

Induced gratings: new method for the determination of nanoparticles

05-11-2010

Although the ancient Egyptians already used inks 5000 years ago, inks and their properties have been continuously improved and refined over thousands of years. Nevertheless, the basic principle of tinta acqua (colored water) remains the same. Today, in addition to inks based on dissolved dyes, there are many which contain pigments in solid form. Unlike dyes, pigments do not dissolve in the medium but are present in dispersed form, e.g. as suspensions. Pigment-based inks have an advantage over those containing dissolved dyes: after drying, they are light-stable and less sensitive towards water or other solvents. They also have higher color intensity. This is an important criterion for the 'permanent document' quality rating...

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Structural and Chemical 3D Imaging with AFM and Raman.

12-10-2010

In the Life Sciences and Bio-medical Research, the characterization of chemical compounds within cells or tissues is one of the most important and difficult tasks for researchers to perform. The development of pharmaceuticals such as drug delivery coatings or capsules also requires as much information as possible about their chemical and structural compositions. For the fields of nanotechnology and materials science, a thorough knowledge of the samples' surface morphology on a sub-micron scale is essential...

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Sniffing Out the Secrets of Social Behavior

Prof. Marc Spehr on the New Understanding of Olfactory Neurosensorics

20-09-2010

In his novel "Perfume - the Story of a Murderer", Patrick Süskind managed to put the power of odors into words better than anyone before him. It may be a fascinating idea, but no one will ever be able to create the perfect fragrance that makes a person irresistibly attractive. In the animal world, on the other hand, olfactory signals are an essential element of social communication. Yet we are only just beginning to understand the complexities and functional differences of the sense of smell in mammals. Professor Marc Spehr is leading the Department of Chemosensation at RWTH Aachen University since 2009, where he is conducting research on the neuronal mechanisms of olfactory perception and signal processing using the mouse model. In his experiments, he and his team are trying to find out how substances for social interaction are perceived and how this perception generates a specific type of behavior...

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Size and element specific determination of Ag nanoparticles in consumer spray products using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to ICPMS

10-09-2010

The use of nanoparticles in consumer products shows a tremendous increase over the past years. A study of the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars reported that between 2005 and today the number of products based on nanoparticles increased almost twentyfold from 54 to 1015. As active compounds these products contain ZnO for surface protection, TiO2 for sun screen or Ag for anti-bacterial purposes, only to name a few applications. Furthermore, Si, C and Au are frequently used. So far, no data are available concerning the release and the behaviour of nanoparticles during the spray process. Therefore, in spite of their beneficial properties, possible risks for humans and the environment need to be thoroughly investigated. Especially the exposure pathway via the lung seems to be very critical, as could be shown in a study recently published in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research...

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Particle sizing with static laser scattering

27-08-2010

When determining particle sizes a wide variety of techniques are used in which sieving may be the most popular. Sieving is a relatively simple technique, despite the fact that of course different instrumental approaches can be used. The main advantages of sieving are the low price of the instrumentation and the fact that different fractions of the original sample can be prepared for further use. On the other hand, sieving is very time consuming and yields results only for a very limited number of particle sizes. Results from sieving typically vary due to several factors: the method of moving the sieve, the period of operation, the number of particles on the sieve and some physical properties such as shape or stickiness of the sample. In addition, the actual size of the mesh gaps of the sieves can have large variations from the nominal size...

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Traceable Sample Storage Solutions

25-03-2010

The 2D coded tube offers an increasingly wide array of secure traceable sample storage solutions that are being adopted in industries including pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, clinical diagnostics, veterinary science and food and beverages. The sample security that 2D coded tubes provide is today universally accepted and welcomed in the market, although there are more considerations than just traceability. The latest development in 2D coded tube systems that combine flexibility, traceability and ensure the integrity of your precious samples are truly moving towards the ideal sample storage solution...

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New Silicone Technologies for Skin Care

16-11-2009

In today's competitive skin care market, consumers look for a range of benefits, superior aesthetics and cost effectiveness. In response, formulators strive to create products that are multifunctional, easy to use and effective in small quantities. At the same time, the most successful products deliver benefits that stand out from those of the competition. Creams, lotions and color cosmetics must be easy to spread and comfortable to wear, without feeling tacky or greasy. Silicones have been popular ingredients in skin care products for more than fifty years. These versatile materials are known for their emolliency, wetting and spreading characteristics and ability to provide unique aesthetics. As technology continues to evolve, silicones increasingly offer multifunctional, high performance properties. This article reviews some of the newest silicone technologies available for the formulation of innovative skin care products...

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Burn injuries under freezing (labor protection) conditions?

Optimal protection when handling cryogenic liquefied gases

28-10-2009

"A little splash of liquid nitrogen hasn't hurt anybody" - this happens to be a widespread opinion in many laboratories. The real dangers connected to cryogenic gases many people had to learn firsthand, unexpected and painful. Skin irritation, cell and tissue damage or severe burn injuries may occur, depending on the type of contact and exposure time. There are less possibilities of medical treatment than for injuries caused by influence of heat...

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ORAC Assay Performed on the POLARstar Omega and PHERAstar FS microplate reader

15-09-2009

In all oxygen consuming cells, metabolism and oxidative stress generate several intermediates and byproducts that are collectively known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are necessary intermediates in the human body, but they are also involved in the aging process and in the development of many degenerative diseases, including cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Herein we describe the determination of the antioxidant capacity of different fruit juices using the ORAC assay; a standardized method that uses Trolox®, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, as a standard substance...

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