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6 Current white paper about the topic waterrss
The use of nanoparticles in consumer products shows a tremendous increase over the past years. A study of the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars reported that between 2005 and today the number of products based on nanoparticles increased almost twentyfold from 54 to 1015. As active compounds these products contain ZnO for surface protection, TiO2 for sun screen or Ag for anti-bacterial purposes, only to name a few applications. Furthermore, Si, C and Au are frequently used. So far, no data are available concerning the release and the behaviour of nanoparticles during the spray process. Therefore, in spite of their beneficial properties, possible risks for humans and the environment need to be thoroughly investigated. Especially the exposure pathway via the lung seems to be very critical, as could be shown in a study recently published in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research...
DLS analysis is a widely applied, non-invasive method for measuring the effective size of molecules in solution. This technique yields valuable information for the characterization of molecules and particles. It facilitates formerly laborious and time consuming measurements, e.g. screening for aggregates or determining optimal crystallization conditions for proteins. The Wyatt Plate Reader is the instrument of choice for any application where molecular size, stability and aggregation are of interest. It reads industry standard microplates with up to 1536 samples automatically and temperature-controlled, if desired. The applications of the technique are wide ranging and include many of the fastest growing areas of research - proteins, biomaterials, liposomes and micelles as well as the established uses for particle sizing and aggregation detection. Conscious of the numerous characterization challenges in the area of drug delivery systems and therapeutic antibodies...
In all oxygen consuming cells, metabolism and oxidative stress generate several intermediates and byproducts that are collectively known as reactive oxygen species (ROS). ROS are necessary intermediates in the human body, but they are also involved in the aging process and in the development of many degenerative diseases, including cancer, heart disease, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Herein we describe the determination of the antioxidant capacity of different fruit juices using the ORAC assay; a standardized method that uses Trolox®, a water-soluble analogue of vitamin E, as a standard substance...
Within nearly all branches of industry we find products, which are coated with thin transparent layers to improve the surface features: Window sheet glasses obtain changes in reflection and absorption behavior, ceramics are treated with coatings to lower water adhesion, coatings on metals create corrosion resistance or better sliding factors. Transparent coatings play also a major role in the semiconductor business. One of the important features to be determined and controlled is the thickness of the layers to balance performance and material input during development and production...
Continuous TOC determination in environmental analysis
Identification of organic pollutants in wastewater is essential for performance evaluation, construction and operation of a wastewater treatment plant. Several parameters are currently used in wastewater analysis applications. The advantages of TOC analyses are apparent especially during continuous monitoring...
The ESI-TOF mass spectrometers micrOTOF and micrOTOF focus do not only provide accurate mass measurements but additionally describe the True Isotopic Pattern TIPTM. For molecular formula generation this unique combination significantly reduces the number of possible formula candidates and the elemental composition of compounds with molecular weights far higher than 500 Da can unequivocally be determined...