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3 Current white paper about the topic water

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New since 5000 years

Induced gratings: new method for the determination of nanoparticles

05-11-2010

Although the ancient Egyptians already used inks 5000 years ago, inks and their properties have been continuously improved and refined over thousands of years. Nevertheless, the basic principle of tinta acqua (colored water) remains the same. Today, in addition to inks based on dissolved dyes, there are many which contain pigments in solid form. Unlike dyes, pigments do not dissolve in the medium but are present in dispersed form, e.g. as suspensions. Pigment-based inks have an advantage over those containing dissolved dyes: after drying, they are light-stable and less sensitive towards water or other solvents. They also have higher color intensity. This is an important criterion for the 'permanent document' quality rating...

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Size and element specific determination of Ag nanoparticles in consumer spray products using asymmetric flow field flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to ICPMS

10-09-2010

The use of nanoparticles in consumer products shows a tremendous increase over the past years. A study of the Woodrow Wilson International Centre for Scholars reported that between 2005 and today the number of products based on nanoparticles increased almost twentyfold from 54 to 1015. As active compounds these products contain ZnO for surface protection, TiO2 for sun screen or Ag for anti-bacterial purposes, only to name a few applications. Furthermore, Si, C and Au are frequently used. So far, no data are available concerning the release and the behaviour of nanoparticles during the spray process. Therefore, in spite of their beneficial properties, possible risks for humans and the environment need to be thoroughly investigated. Especially the exposure pathway via the lung seems to be very critical, as could be shown in a study recently published in the Journal of Nanoparticle Research...

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Sum parameters "on trail"

Continuous TOC determination in environmental analysis

27-05-2005

Identification of organic pollutants in wastewater is essential for performance evaluation, construction and operation of a wastewater treatment plant. Several parameters are currently used in wastewater analysis applications. The advantages of TOC analyses are apparent especially during continuous monitoring...

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