Organophosphorus (OP) pesticides are primarily used as insecticides and chemical warfare agents worldwide. Due to their impact on the environment and health, it is important to develop prompt and accurate pesticide analysis method. This review addresses recent advances and new trends in nanotechnology‐based biosensors for biological monitoring of exposures to OP pesticides and nerve agents. In order to determine them, we have to find the corresponding biomarkers. In 1989, the national academy of sciences (NAS)divided biomarkers into the following three categories: biomarker of exposure, biomarker of effect and biomarker of susceptibility (Figure 1A). The unique chemical and physical properties of nanomaterial have paved the way to new and improved sensing devices, in general, and electrochemical/optical biosensors, in particular. In this paper, background information and a general overview of electrochemical/immunoassay detection techniques are provided. Various nanomaterial labels are discussed. Usually nanomaterials can be roughly divided into nanometer powder, nanometer fiber, nanometer film, nanometer block and so on four classes, such as colloidal gold, semiconductor nanoparticles and carbon nanomaterial (Figure 1B). In addition, we discuss some future considerations and opportunities for advancing the use of biosensors for environmental and health studies.