Complex mixtures of cuticular waxes coat plant surfaces to seal them against environmental stresses, with compositions greatly varying between species and possibly organs. This paper reports comprehensive analyses of the waxes on both above- and below-ground organs of potato, where total wax coverages varied between petals (2.6 μg/cm2), leaves, stems, and tubers (1.8–1.9 μg/cm2), and rhizomes (1.1 μg/cm2). The wax mixtures on above-ground organs were dominated by alkanes, occurring in homologous series of isomeric C25–C35 n-alkanes, C25–C35 2-methylalkanes, and C26–C34 3-methylalkanes. In contrast, below-ground organs had waxes rich in monoacylglycerols (C22–C28 acyls) and C18–C30 alkyl ferulates, together with fatty acids (rhizomes) or primary alcohols (tubers). The organ-specific wax coverages, compound class distribution, and chain length profiles suggest highly regulated activities of wax biosynthesis enzymes, likely related to organ-specific ecophysiological functions.