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Simple and Fast Determination of Warfarin in Pharmaceutical Samples Using Boron‐Doped Diamond Electrode in BIA and FIA Systems with Multiple Pulse Amperometric Detection


This paper proposes the use of the boron‐doped diamond electrode (BDDE) in flow and batch injection analysis (FIA and BIA) systems with multiple‐pulse amperometric (MPA) detection for the determination of warfarin (WA) in pharmaceutical formulations. The electrochemical behavior of WA obtained by cyclic voltammetry (CV) in 0.1 mol L−1 phosphate buffer shows an irreversible oxidation process at +1.0 V (vs Ag/AgCl). The MPA was based on the application of two sequential potential pulses as a function of time on BDDE: (1) for WA detection at +1.2 V/100 ms and; (2) for electrode surface cleaning at −0.2 V/200 ms. Both hydrodynamic systems (FIA‐MPA and BIA‐MPA) used for WA determination achieved high precision (with relative standard deviations around 2 %, n=10), wide linear range (2.0−400.0 μmol L−1), low limits of detection (0.5 μmol L−1) and good analytical frequency (94 h−1 for FIA and 130 h−1 for BIA). The WA determination made by the proposed methods was compared to the official spectrophotometric method. The FIA‐MPA and BIA‐MPA methods are simple and fast, being an attractive option for WA routine analysis in pharmaceutical industries.

Authors:   Tiago de Jesus Guedes, Glauber Antônio Reis Andrade, Amanda Barbosa Lima, Rodrigo Amorim Bezerra da Silva, Wallans Torres Pio dos Santos
Journal:   Electroanalysis
Year:   2017
Pages:   n/a
DOI:   10.1002/elan.201700320
Publication date:   19-Jul-2017
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