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Direct Observation of Halide Migration and its Effect on the Photoluminescence of Methylammonium Lead Bromide Perovskite Single Crystals

Abstract

Optoelectronic devices based on hybrid perovskites have demonstrated outstanding performance within a few years of intense study. However, commercialization of these devices requires barriers to their development to be overcome, such as their chemical instability under operating conditions. To investigate this instability and its consequences, the electric field applied to single crystals of methylammonium lead bromide (CH3NH3PbBr3) is varied, and changes are mapped in both their elemental composition and photoluminescence. Synchrotron‐based nanoprobe X‐ray fluorescence (nano‐XRF) with 250 nm resolution reveals quasi‐reversible field‐assisted halide migration, with corresponding changes in photoluminescence. It is observed that higher local bromide concentration is correlated to superior optoelectronic performance in CH3NH3PbBr3. A lower limit on the electromigration rate is calculated from these experiments and the motion is interpreted as vacancy‐mediated migration based on nudged elastic band density functional theory (DFT) simulations. The XRF mapping data provide direct evidence of field‐assisted ionic migration in a model hybrid‐perovskite thin single crystal, while the link with photoluminescence proves that the halide stoichiometry plays a key role in the optoelectronic properties of the perovskite.

Bromide‐ion migration is directly observed in a methylammonium lead bromide perovskite single crystal under bias using a synchrotron‐based X‐ray fluorescence nanoprobe. Photoluminescence mapping indicates that bromide‐rich regions exhibit enhanced photoluminescence. The close correspondence between the local bromide concentration and photoluminescence in response to bias reveals the importance of non‐stoichiometry in determining optoelectronic performance in halide perovskites.

Authors:   Yanqi Luo, Parisa Khoram, Sarah Brittman, Zhuoying Zhu, Barry Lai, Shyue Ping Ong, Erik C. Garnett, David P. Fenning
Journal:   Advanced Materials
Volume:   29
edition:   43
Year:   2017
Pages:   n/a
DOI:   10.1002/adma.201703451
Publication date:   29-Sep-2017
Facts, background information, dossiers
  • photoluminescence
  • methylammonium lead bromide
  • perovskites
  • Single
  • perovskite
  • density functional theory
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