Thermal decomposition of t-butyl hydroperoxide and di-t-butyl peroxide was investigated using flash pyrolysis (in a short reaction time of <100 μs) and vacuum-ultraviolet (λ = 118.2 nm) single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) at temperatures up to 1120 K and quantum computational methods. Acetone and methyl radical were detected as the predominant products in the initial decomposition of di-t-butyl peroxide via O–O bond fission. In the initial dissociation of t-butyl hydroperoxide, acetone, methyl radical, isobutylene, and isobutylene oxide products were identified. The novel detection of the unimolecular formation of isobutylene oxide, as supported by the computational study, was found to proceed via a roaming hydroxyl radical facilitated by a hydrogen-bonded intermediate. This new pathway could provide a new class of reactions to consider in the modeling of the low temperature oxidation of alkanes.