Aqueous Synthesis of High-Quality Cu2ZnSnS4 Nanocrystals and Their Thermal Annealing Characteristics
Copper zinc tin sulfide (CZTS) nanocrystal inks are promising candidates for the development of cheap, efficient, scalable, and nontoxic photovoltaic (PV) devices. However, optimization of the synthetic chemistry to achieve these goals remains a key challenge. Herein we describe a single-step, aqueous-based synthesis that yields high-quality CZTS nanocrystal inks while also minimizing residual organic impurities. By exploiting simultaneous redox and crystal formation reactions, square-platelet-like CZTS nanocrystals stabilized by Sn2S64– and thiourea are produced. The CZTS synthesis is optimized by using a combination of inductively coupled plasma analysis, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and synchrotron powder X-ray diffraction to assess the versatility of the synthesis and identify suitable composition ranges for achieving phase-pure CZTS. It is found that mild heat treatment between 185 and 220 °C is most suitable for achieving this because this temperature range is suffici...
Cameron Ritchie; Anthony S. R. Chesman; Mark Styles; Jacek J. Jasieniak; Paul Mulvaney
We recently generalized the formerly alignment-dependent multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure–activity relationships (MIA-QSAR) method through the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), allowing for its application to noncongruent and structurally dive ... more
Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that is critically involved in many biological processes that are linked to cell stress responses. It is catalyzed by a class of enzymes known as poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). In particular, PARP1 is ... more
This review focuses on the type A cytochrome c oxidases (CcO), which are found in all mitochondria and also in several aerobic bacteria. CcO catalyzes the respiratory reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water by an intriguing mechanism, the details of which are fairly well understood today as a r ... more
Rohm and Haas Powder Coatings is delighted to announce that its Reading, Pennsylvania, facility is the first site in the world to receive the RCMS® Site Certification awarded by the American Chemical Council (ACC).
When Raj Gupta, Chairman and CEO of Rohm and Haas Company, became Chairman ... more