Coexistence of Kosmotropic and Chaotropic Impacts of Urea on Water As Revealed by Terahertz Spectroscopy
Whether urea can serve as a kosmotrope or chaotrope has long been a topic of debate. In this study, broad-band THz spectroscopy (0.2–12 THz) of aqueous solutions of urea was used to characterize the hydration state and the hydrogen bond structure of water around urea. Three low-frequency vibration modes of urea were found around 2, 4, and above 12 THz. After eliminating the contribution of these modes, the “urea-vibration-free” complex dielectric constant was decomposed into the relaxation modes of bulk water and the oscillation modes of water. When hydration water is defined to be reorientationally retarded relative to bulk, our analysis revealed that the hydration number is 1.9 independent of urea concentrations up to 5 M, and this number is in close agreement with that of water constrained by strong acceptor hydrogen bonds of urea oxygen. Regarding the hydrogen bond structure, it was found that the tetrahedral-like water structure is mostly preserved (though the hydrogen bond lifetime is significantly ...
We recently generalized the formerly alignment-dependent multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure–activity relationships (MIA-QSAR) method through the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), allowing for its application to noncongruent and structurally dive ... more
Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that is critically involved in many biological processes that are linked to cell stress responses. It is catalyzed by a class of enzymes known as poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). In particular, PARP1 is ... more
This review focuses on the type A cytochrome c oxidases (CcO), which are found in all mitochondria and also in several aerobic bacteria. CcO catalyzes the respiratory reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water by an intriguing mechanism, the details of which are fairly well understood today as a r ... more
Rohm and Haas Powder Coatings is delighted to announce that its Reading, Pennsylvania, facility is the first site in the world to receive the RCMS® Site Certification awarded by the American Chemical Council (ACC).
When Raj Gupta, Chairman and CEO of Rohm and Haas Company, became Chairman ... more