Perpendicular Orientation of Diblock Copolymers Induced by Confinement between Graphene Oxide Sheets
We have studied an orientation structure of self-assembled block copolymers (dPS-b-PMMA) of deuterated polystyrene (dPS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) confined between graphene oxide (GO) surfaces. The results of combination techniques, such as neutron reflectivity, time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry, grazing-incidence small-angle X-ray scattering, and scanning electron microscopy, show that self-assembled domains of the block copolymers in thin films near the GO sheets are oriented perpendicular to the surface of the GO monolayers, in contrast to the horizontal lamellar structure of the copolymer thin film in the absence of the GO monolayers. This is due to the amphiphilic nature of the GO, which leads to a nonpreferential interaction of both dPS and PMMA blocks. Double-sided confinement with the GO monolayers further extends the ordering behavior of the dPS-b-PMMA thin films. Continuous vertical orientation of the block copolymer thin films is also obtained in the presence of alternat...
We recently generalized the formerly alignment-dependent multivariate image analysis applied to quantitative structure–activity relationships (MIA-QSAR) method through the application of the discrete Fourier transform (DFT), allowing for its application to noncongruent and structurally dive ... more
Poly-ADP-ribosylation (PARylation) is a protein posttranslational modification (PTM) that is critically involved in many biological processes that are linked to cell stress responses. It is catalyzed by a class of enzymes known as poly-ADP-ribose polymerases (PARPs). In particular, PARP1 is ... more
This review focuses on the type A cytochrome c oxidases (CcO), which are found in all mitochondria and also in several aerobic bacteria. CcO catalyzes the respiratory reduction of dioxygen (O2) to water by an intriguing mechanism, the details of which are fairly well understood today as a r ... more
Rohm and Haas Powder Coatings is delighted to announce that its Reading, Pennsylvania, facility is the first site in the world to receive the RCMS® Site Certification awarded by the American Chemical Council (ACC).
When Raj Gupta, Chairman and CEO of Rohm and Haas Company, became Chairman ... more