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IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 534: Site-Specific Cleavage by Topoisomerase 2: A Mark of the Core Centromere

IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 534: Site-Specific Cleavage by Topoisomerase 2: A Mark of the Core Centromere

International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19020534

Authors: Walter Mills Jennifer Spence Tatsuo Fukagawa Christine Farr

In addition to its roles in transcription and replication, topoisomerase 2 (topo 2) is crucial in shaping mitotic chromosomes and in ensuring the orderly separation of sister chromatids. As well as its recruitment throughout the length of the mitotic chromosome, topo 2 accumulates at the primary constriction. Here, following cohesin release, the enzymatic activity of topo 2 acts to remove residual sister catenations. Intriguingly, topo 2 does not bind and cleave all sites in the genome equally; one preferred site of cleavage is within the core centromere. Discrete topo 2-centromeric cleavage sites have been identified in α-satellite DNA arrays of active human centromeres and in the centromere regions of some protozoans. In this study, we show that topo 2 cleavage sites are also a feature of the centromere in Schizosaccharomyces pombe, the metazoan Drosophila melanogaster and in another vertebrate species, Gallus gallus (chicken). In vertebrates, we show that this site-specific cleavage is diminished by depletion of CENP-I, an essential constitutive centromere protein. The presence, within the core centromere of a wide range of eukaryotes, of precise sites hypersensitive to topo 2 cleavage suggests that these mark a fundamental and conserved aspect of this functional domain, such as a non-canonical secondary structure.

Authors:   Mills, Walter E.; Spence, Jennifer M.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo ; Farr, Christine J.
Journal:   International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Volume:   19
edition:   2
Year:   2018
Pages:   534
DOI:   10.3390/ijms19020534
Publication date:   10-Feb-2018
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