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Molecules, Vol. 23, Pages 1408: Separation of Active Compounds from Food by-Product (Cocoa Shell) Using Subcritical Water Extraction

Molecules, Vol. 23, Pages 1408: Separation of Active Compounds from Food by-Product (Cocoa Shell) Using Subcritical Water Extraction

Molecules doi: 10.3390/molecules23061408

Authors: Stela Jokić Tanja Gagić Željko Knez Drago Šubarić Mojca Škerget

Large amounts of residues are produced in the food industries. The waste shells from cocoa processing are usually burnt for fuel or used as a mulch in gardens to add nutrients to soil and to suppress weeds. The objectives of this work were: (a) to separate valuable compounds from cocoa shell by applying sustainable green separation process—subcritical water extraction (SWE); (b) identification and quantification of active compounds, sugars and sugar degradation products in obtained extracts using HPLC; (c) characterization of the antioxidant activity of extracts; (d) optimization of separation process using response surface methodology (RSM). Depending on applied extraction conditions, different concentration of theobromine, caffeine, theophylline, epicatechin, catechin, chlorogenic acid and gallic acid were determined in the extracts obtained by subcritical water. Furthermore, mannose, glucose, xylose, arabinose, rhamnose and fucose were detected as well as their important degradation products such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), furfural, levulinic acid, lactic acid and formic acid.

Authors:   Jokić, Stela ; Gagić, Tanja ; Knez, Željko ; Šubarić, Drago ; Škerget, Mojca
Journal:   Molecules
Volume:   23
edition:   6
Year:   2018
Pages:   1408
DOI:   10.3390/molecules23061408
Publication date:   11-Jun-2018
Facts, background information, dossiers
  • waste
  • theophylline
  • theobromine
  • sugars
  • nutrients
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