IJMS, Vol. 19, Pages 1897: Methods of Isolation, Characterization and Expansion of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs): An Overview
International Journal of Molecular Sciences doi: 10.3390/ijms19071897
Maria Grazia Cifone
Considering the increasing interest in adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) in regenerative medicine, optimization of methods aimed at isolation, characterization, expansion and evaluation of differentiation potential is critical to ensure (a) the quality of stem cells also in terms of genetic stability; (b) the reproducibility of beneficial effects; and (c) the safety of their use. Numerous studies have been conducted to understand the mechanisms that regulate ASC proliferation, growth and differentiation, however standard protocols about harvesting and processing techniques are not yet defined. It is also important to note that some steps in the procedures of harvesting and/or processing have been reported to affect recovery and/or the physiology of ASCs. Even considering the great opportunity that the ASCs provide for the identification of novel molecular targets for new or old drugs, the definition of homogeneous preparation methods that ensure adequate quality assurance and control, in accordance with current GMPs (good manufacturing practices), is required. Here, we summarize the literature reports to provide a detailed overview of the methodological issues underlying human ASCs isolation, processing, characterization, expansion, differentiation techniques, recalling at the same time their basilar principles, advantages and limits, in particular focusing on how these procedures could affect the ASC quality, functionality and plasticity.