Simultaneous determination of hexabromocyclododecane, tetrabromobisphenol A, and related compounds in sewage sludge and sediment samples from Ebro River basin (Spain)
This paper describes the development of a methodology for the simultaneous determination and quantification of hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD), tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), and related compounds (bisphenol A, monobromobisphenol A, dibromobisphenol A, and tribromobisphenol A) in sludge and sediment samples. The selected method is based on an extraction with dichloromethane: methanol followed by purification via SPE C18 cartridges. Instrumental determination was carried out by liquid chromatography–quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry (LC-QqLIT-MS), with quantification based on isotopic dilution method. Analyte recoveries were in the range of 39–120% and 88–126% for spiked sewage and sediment, respectively. Repeatability of replicate extractions was better than 13% relative standard deviation. Linearity was checked in the range of 0.05 and 25 injected nanograms. Limits of detection (LODs) and limits of quantification (LOQs) were in the range of 0.6 and 2.7 ng/g and 1.4 and 66 ng/g for sediment and sludge samples, respectively. The developed method was applied to sewage sludge and sediment samples collected along the Ebro River and Cinca River, one of its tributaries (northeast of Spain). TBBPA levels in sewage sludge ranged from not quantified to 1,329 ng/g dw, whereas levels in sediment samples were lower, between not detected and 15 ng/g dw. As regards HBCD, concentrations were between not detected and 375 ng/g for sludge samples and 0.8 and 1850 ng/g for sediments.
Plant parasitic nematodes are the most destructive group of plant pathogens worldwide and their control is extremely challenging. Plant Essential oils (EOs) and their constituents have a great potential in nematode control since they can be developed for use as nematicides themselves or can ... more
For over a century, ulcer has been a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Its treatment has progressed from vagotomy to proton pump inhibitors. However, the drugs used produce many adverse effects and are less effective than they ought to be. Therefore, there is a growing interest in alt ... more
Endophytic fungi are ubiquitous organisms found in the plants, residing intercellular or intracellular, at least for a portion of their lives without causing apparent symptoms of infection. Almost all plants are known to harbor endophytes. The choice of the plant to be used for exploring en ... more
Springer Nature published its first machine-generated book, compiled using an algorithm developed by researchers from Goethe University. This collaboration broke new ground with the first machine-generated book to be published by a scholarly publisher.
The book is available as a free downl ... more
Inflatable toys and swimming aids, like bathing rings and arm bands, often have a distinctive smell which could indicate that they contain a range of potentially hazardous substances. Some of these compounds, which include carbonyl compounds, cyclohexanone, phenol and isophorone, might be c ... more
Graphene, the one-atom-thick material made of carbon atoms, still holds some unexplained qualities, which are important in connection with electronic applications where high-conductivity matters, ranging from smart materials that collectively respond to external stimuli in a coherent, tunab ... more
Springer is a leading global scientific, technical and medical portfolio, providing researchers in academia, scientific institutions and corporate R&D departments with quality content through innovative information, products and services. more