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IJERPH, Vol. 8, Pages 3399-3415: A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive behaviors may be acquired whereas another is not. This paper presents the PACE model as a framework which might help explain addiction specificity. Pragmatics, attraction, communication, and expectation (PACE) variables are described, which may help give some direction to future research needs in this arena.

Authors:   Steve Sussman; Adam Leventhal; Ricky N. Bluthenthal; Marilyn Freimuth; Myriam Forster; Susan L. Ames
Journal:   International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Volume:   8
edition:   8
Year:   2011
Pages:   3399
Publication date:   18-Aug-2011
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  • addiction
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