Comparison of different methods to quantify fat classes in bakery products
The definition of fat differs in different countries; thus whether fat is listed on food labels depends on the country. Some countries list crude fat content in the ‘Fat’ section on the food label, whereas other countries list total fat. In this study, three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products: the Folch method, the automated Soxhlet method, and the AOAC 996.06 method. The results using these methods were compared. Fat (crude) extracted by the Folch and Soxhlet methods was gravimetrically determined and assessed by fat class using capillary gas chromatography (GC). In most samples, fat (total) content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lower than the fat (crude) content determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. Furthermore, monounsaturated fat or saturated fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 method was lowest. Almost no difference was observed between fat (crude) content determined by the Folch method and that determined by the automated Soxhlet method for nearly all samples. In three samples (wheat biscuits, butter cookies-1, and chocolate chip cookies), monounsaturated fat, saturated fat, and trans fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was higher than that obtained by the Folch method. The polyunsaturated fat content obtained by the automated Soxhlet method was not higher than that obtained by the Folch method in any sample.
► Three methods were used for determining fat classes and content in bakery products. ► Fat content determined by the AOAC 996.06 was lower than that determined by the Folch or automated Soxhlet methods. ► We found that the analytical fat determination method in food depends on how fat is defined. ► Fat determination method produces differences in fat content and fat classes.
Jae-Min Shin, Young-Ok Hwang, Ock-Ju Tu, Han-Bin Jo, Jung-Hun Kim, Young-Zoo Chae, Kyung-Hun Rhu, Seung-Kook Park
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