Superresolution Multidimensional Imaging with Structured Illumination Microscopy
The resolution of an optical microscope is fundamentally limited by diffraction. In a conventional wide-field fluorescence microscope, the resolution limit is at best 200 nm. However, modern superresolution methods can bypass this limit. Pointillistic imaging techniques like PALM (photoactivated localization microscopy) and STORM (stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy) do so by precisely localizing each individual molecule in a sample. In contrast, STED uses the stimulated emission process driven to saturation to dramatically reduce the size of the region in the sample that is capable of spontaneously emitting fluorescence. Structured illumination microscopy (SIM) illuminates the sample with a pattern, typically the image of a grating. This computationally removes the out-of-focus blur, a method known as optical sectioning SIM. Furthermore, frequency mixing of the illumination pattern with the sample caused by the moiré effect results in a downmodulation of fine sample detail into the frequency-sup...
High-energy neutrino astrophysics has come of age with IceCube's discovery of neutrinos in the TeV to PeV energy range, attributable to extragalactic sources at cosmological distances. At such energies, astrophysical neutrinos must originate in cosmic-ray interactions, providing information ... more
Reactor neutrinos have been an important tool for both discovery and precision measurement in the history of neutrino studies. Since the first generation of reactor neutrino experiments in the 1950s, the detector technology has advanced greatly. New ideas, new knowledge, and modern software ... more
To our present knowledge, all of the physics at the LHC can be described in the framework of the Standard Model of particle physics. Indeed, the newly discovered Higgs boson with a mass close to 125 GeV seems to confirm the predictions of the theory. Thus, in addition to looking for direct ... more