Inhibition of ClpB, the bacterial representative of the heat-shock protein 100 family that is associated with virulence of several pathogens, could be an effective strategy to develop new antimicrobial agents. Using a high-throughput screening method, we have identified several compounds that bind to different conformations of ClpB and analyzed their effect on the ATPase and chaperone activities of the protein. Two of them inhibit these functional properties as well as the growth of Gram negative bacteria (E. coli), displaying antimicrobial activity under thermal or oxidative stress conditions. This activity is abolished upon deletion of ClpB, indicating that the action of these compounds is related to the stress cellular response in which ClpB is involved. Moreover, their moderate toxicity in human cell lines suggests that they might provide promising leads against bacterial growth.