N‐bromo‐hydantoin and N‐bromo‐5,5′‐dimethylhydantoin conjugated polystyrene beads were synthesized from chloromethyl polystyrene beads which differ in their particles size, crosslinking, nano‐micro porosity, and tunnels size on the surface, in order to study the effect of these parameters on oxidative halogen release and resultant activity, for water purification applications. The synthesized beads were characterized using elemental analysis, FT‐IR, solid state 13C‐NMR, and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The conjugation yield and kinetics in different solvents and bromine loading capacity were studied. The N‐bromoamine polystyrene beads were tested for water decontamination according to NSF 231 protocol. The release of active bromine was analyzed by spectrophotometer using a DPD‐1 kit and also studied the antimicrobial activity against Escherichia coli and MS2 phages. Bead's nano‐micro characteristics were found critical for oxidative halogen release control: rate stabilization and modulation, extension and also influences antimicrobial activity. The synthesized beads exhibited extended and stable release of bromine, 6 and 4 log reduction for E. coli and MS2, respectively for 250 L of passing contaminated water. Thus, N‐halamine hydantoins conjugated polystyrenes, chemically or kinetically release modified should have applications as disinfectants in water purification systems as well as medical field. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Polym. Sci., Part A: Polym. Chem. 2015
Chemically or kinetically release modified N‐halamine hydantoins conjugated polystyrenes beads were studied. Beside chemical modifications, bead's nano‐micro characteristics were found critical for oxidative halogen release control: rate stabilization and modulation, extension and also influences antimicrobial activity. Distinct controlled releasing profiles were found and extended strong antimicrobial activity for hundreds of liters. These parameters are important to explore, since the rate of halogen release influences antimicrobial activity and subsequently the material usage for different applications.