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3,911 Newest Publications of mdpi

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Energies, Vol. 4, Pages 1211-1245: A General Mathematical Framework for Calculating Systems-Scale Efficiency of Energy Extraction and Conversion: Energy Return on Investment (EROI) and Other Energy Return Ratios

19-Aug-2011 | Adam R. Brandt; Michael Dale, Energies, 2011

The efficiencies of energy extraction and conversion systems are typically expressed using energy return ratios (ERRs) such as the net energy ratio (NER) or energy return on investment (EROI). A lack of a general mathematical framework prevents inter-comparison of NER/EROI estimates between ...

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Energies, Vol. 4, Pages 1197-1210: A Carbon Footprint of an Office Building

19-Aug-2011 | Miimu Airaksinen; Pellervo Matilainen, Energies, 2011

Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO2 equivalent emissions are considered, the CO2 emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the ...

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IJERPH, Vol. 8, Pages 3416-3436: Estimation of the Effect of Soil Texture on Nitrate-Nitrogen Content in Groundwater Using Optical Remote Sensing

19-Aug-2011 | Yongyoot Witheetrirong; Nitin Kumar Tripathi; Taravudh Tipdecho; Preeda Parkpian, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2011

The use of chemical fertilizers in Thailand increased exponentially by more than 100-fold from 1961 to 2004. Intensification of agricultural production causes several potential risks to water supplies, especially nitrate-nitrogen (NO3−-N) pollution. Nitrate is considered a potential pollutant ...

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Sensors, Vol. 11, Pages 8143-8151: Fabrication and Characterization of Polyaniline/PVA Humidity Microsensors

19-Aug-2011 | Ming-Zhi Yang; Ching-Liang Dai; Wei-Yi Lin, Sensors, 2011

This study presents the fabrication and characterization of a humidity microsensor that consists of interdigitated electrodes and a sensitive film. The area of the humidity microsensor is about 2 mm2. The sensitive film is polyaniline doping polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) that is prepared by the sol-gel ...

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IJERPH, Vol. 8, Pages 3399-3415: A Framework for the Specificity of Addictions

18-Aug-2011 | Steve Sussman; Adam Leventhal; Ricky N. Bluthenthal; Marilyn Freimuth; Myriam Forster; Susan L. Ames, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2011

Research over the last two decades suggests that a wide range of substance and behavioral addictions may serve similar functions. Yet, co-occurrence of addictions has only been reported among a minority of addicts. “Addiction specificity” pertains to a phenomenon in which one pattern of addictive ...

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IJERPH, Vol. 8, Pages 3380-3398: Insights from Epidemiology into Dichloromethane and Cancer Risk

18-Aug-2011 | Glinda S. Cooper; Cheryl Siegel Scott; Ambuja S. Bale, International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 2011

Dichloromethane (methylene chloride) is a widely used chlorinated solvent. We review the available epidemiology studies (five cohort studies, 13 case-control studies, including seven of hematopoietic cancers), focusing on specific cancer sites. There was little indication of an increased risk of ...

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Sensors, Vol. 11, Pages 8127-8142: Dual-Functional On-Chip AlGaAs/GaAs Schottky Diode for RF Power Detection and Low-Power Rectenna Applications

18-Aug-2011 | Abdul Manaf Hashim; Farahiyah Mustafa; Shaharin Fadzli Abd Rahman; Abdul Rahim Abdul Rahman, Sensors, 2011

A Schottky diode has been designed and fabricated on an n-AlGaAs/GaAs high-electron-mobility-transistor (HEMT) structure. Current-voltage (I-V) measurements show good device rectification, with a Schottky barrier height of 0.4349 eV for Ni/Au metallization. The differences between the Schottky ...

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Sensors, Vol. 11, Pages 8115-8126: Robustifying Vector Median Filter

18-Aug-2011 | Morillas, Samuel ; Gregori, Valentín, Sensors, 2011

This paper describes two methods for impulse noise reduction in colour images that outperform the vector median filter from the noise reduction capability point of view. Both methods work by determining first the vector median in a given filtering window. Then, the use of complimentary ...

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Energies, Vol. 4, Pages 1178-1196: Model Predictive Control-Based Fast Charging for Vehicular Batteries

17-Aug-2011 | Jingyu Yan; Guoqing Xu; Huihuan Qian; Yangsheng Xu; Zhibin Song, Energies, 2011

Battery fast charging is one of the most significant and difficult techniques affecting the commercialization of electric vehicles (EVs). In this paper, we propose a fast charge framework based on model predictive control, with the aim of simultaneously reducing the charge duration, which ...

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Entropy, Vol. 13, Pages 1518-1532: A Risk Profile for Information Fusion Algorithms

17-Aug-2011 | Kenric P. Nelson; Brian J. Scannell; Herbert Landau, Entropy, 2011

E.T. Jaynes, originator of the maximum entropy interpretation of statistical mechanics, emphasized that there is an inevitable trade-off between the conflicting requirements of robustness and accuracy for any inferencing algorithm. This is because robustness requires discarding of information in ...

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