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Guarana



Guarana

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Sapindales
Family: Sapindaceae
Genus: Paullinia
Species: P. cupana
Binomial name
Paullinia cupana
Kunth

Guarana (Brazilian name guaraná) (IPA: [gu̯a.ra.'na], [gu̯a.ɾa.'na] or [gu̯a.ɹa.'na]), Paullinia cupana (syn. P. crysan, P. sorbilis), is a climbing plant in the Sapindaceae family, native to the Amazon basin. While guarana features large leaves and clusters of flowers, it is best known for its fruit, which is about the size of a coffee berry. Each fruit contains about one seed, which contains approximately three times as much caffeine as coffee beans.[1]

The guarana fruit's color ranges from orange to red and contains black seeds which are partly covered by white arils. The color contrast when the fruit has been split open has been likened to eyeballs; this has formed the basis of a myth.[2]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

History and culture

The word guarana comes from the Portuguese guaraná, which has its origins in the Sateré-Mawé language word warana.[3]

Guarana plays an important role in Tupi and Guaraní Brazilian culture. According to a myth dating back to the Sateré-Maué tribe, guarana's domestication originated with a deity killing a beloved village child. In order to console the villagers, a more benevolent god plucked the left eye from the child and planted it in the forest, resulting in the wild variety of guarana. The god then plucked the right eye from the child and planted it in the village, giving rise to domesticated guarana.[4]

The Guaranís would make this tea by shelling and washing the seeds, followed by pounding them into a fine powder. The powder is kneaded into a dough and then shaped into cylinders. This product is known as guarana bread or Brazilian cocoa, which would be grated and then immersed into hot water along with sugar.[1]

This plant was introduced to western civilization in the 17th century following its discovery by Father Felip Betendorf. By 1958, guarana was commercialized.[1]

Composition

Below are chemicals found in guarana.[5][6]

Chemical Plant part Parts per million
Adenine seed
Ash seed < 14,200
Caffeine or guaranine seed 9,100 - 76,000
Catechutannic-acid seed
Choline seed
D-catechin seed
Fat seed < 30,000
Guanine seed
Hypoxanthine seed
Mucilage seed
Protein seed < 98,600
Resin seed < 70,000
Saponin seed
Starch seed 50,000 - 60,000
Tannin seed 50,000 - 120,000
Theobromine seed 200 - 400
Theophylline seed 0 - 2500
Timbonine seed
Xanthine seed

The chemical guaranine is identical to caffeine derived from other sources, for example coffee, tea, and mate. Guaranine, theine, and mateine are all official synonyms for caffeine.[7]

Uses

  Guarana is used in sweetened or carbonated soft drinks and energy shots, an ingredient of herbal tea or contained in capsules. Generally, while South America obtains most of its caffeine from guarana,[8] many other Western countries are beginning to witness use of guarana in various energy and superfruit products.[9]

Beverages

See also: List of beverages containing guarana

Brazil, which consumes the third-most amount of soft drinks in the world,[10] produces several brands of soft drink from guarana extract. Exceeding Brazilian sales of cola drinks,[11] guarana-containing beverages may not cause jitters associated with drinking coffee, a perception that could be a placebo effect or result from another substance.[8]

Cognitive effects

Chemically equivalent to caffeine, guarana is of interest for its potential effects on cognition. In rats, guarana increased memory retention and physical endurance when compared with a placebo.[12]

A 2007 human pilot study [13] assessed acute behavioral effects to four doses (37.5 mg, 75 mg, 150 mg and 300 mg) of guarana extract. Memory, alertness and mood were increased by the two lower doses, confirming previous results of cognitive improvement following 75 mg guaraná. These studies have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration or any similar government agencies, and do not imply medical or regulatory approval for use of guarana to enhance cognition.

Other uses and side-effects

  In the United States, guarana holds a GRAS-status, i.e. generally recognized as safe.[14]

Preliminary research has shown guarana may have metabolic effects. One study showed an average 11.2 pound weight loss in a group taking a mixture of yerba mate, guarana, and damiana, compared to an average 1 pound loss in a placebo group after 45 days.[15] Although inconclusive about specific effects due only to guarana, this study differs from another showing no effect on body weight of a formula containing guarana.[16]

Guarana extract reduced aggregation of rabbit platelets by up to 37% below control values and decreased platelet thromboxane formation from arachidonic acid by 78% below control values.[17] It is not known if such platelet action clinically reduces the risk of heart attack or ischemic stroke.[18]

Other laboratory studies showed antioxidant, antibacterial, and fat cell reduction (when combined with conjugated linoleic acid) from chronic intake of guarana.[19]

From anecdotal evidence of excessive consumption of energy drinks, guarana may contribute (alone or in combination with caffeine and taurine) to onset of seizures.[20]

 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Guarana". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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