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Aufeis (German for "ice on top") is a sheet-like mass of layered ice that forms from successive flows of ground water during freezing temperatures. This form of ice is also called icings or, by the Russian term, naled.
Additional recommended knowledge
Formation of aufeis
Aufeis accumulates during winter along stream and river valleys in arctic and subarctic environments. Aufeis forms by upwelling of river water behind ice dams, or by ground-water discharge. The latter mechanism prevails in high-gradient alpine streams as they freeze solid. Ground-water discharge is blocked by ice, perturbing the steady-state condition, and causing a small incremental rise in the local water table until discharge occurs along the bank at the top of the previously formed ice. Successive ice layers can lead to aufeis accumulations that are several meters thick. Aufeis typically melts out during summer and will form in the same place year after year (Hu and Pollard, 1997).
Humans and aufeis
Sheets of aufeis may block stream channels and cause their flood plains to widen as spring floodwaters are forced to flow around the ice (Harden et al., 1977). Research on aufeis has to a large extent been motivated by the variety of engineering problems the ice sheets can cause (e.g. blocking drainages and causing flooding of roads) (Kane 1981). Culverts and pipelines can actually help to block flow and lead to the development of more extensive aufeis (Williams and Smith, 1989).
Occurrence of aufeis
Sheets of aufeis have been observed in Alaska (Harden et al., 1977; Kane, 1981), Arctic Canada (Veillette and Thomas, 1979; Reedyk et al., 1995; Clark and Lauriol, 1997; Priesnitz and Schunke, 2002), Russia (Sokolov, 1978) and Mongolia (Froelich, 1982; Swanson-Hysell and Dandar, 2005).
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Aufeis". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|