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Bayer AG (German, pronounced [ˈbaɪə]) (ISIN: DE0005752000, TYO: 4863) is a German chemical and pharmaceutical company founded in Barmen, Germany in 1863. Today it is headquartered in Leverkusen, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is well-known for its original brand of aspirin.
Additional recommended knowledge
About Bayer AG
In order to separate operational and strategic management Bayer AG was reorganized into a holding company in December 2003. The group's core businesses were transformed into limited companies, each controlled by Bayer AG. These companies are: Bayer CropScience AG; Bayer HealthCare AG; Bayer MaterialScience AG and Bayer Chemicals AG and the three service limited companies Bayer Technology Services GmbH, Bayer Business Services GmbH and Bayer Industry Services GmbH & Co. OHG.
Following Bayer's successful reorganization, its chemicals activities (with the exception of H.C. Starck and Wolff Walsrode) have been combined with certain components of the polymers segment to form the new company LANXESS. This change took place on July 1, 2004, with LANXESS to be listed on the stock exchange by the beginning of 2005.
Bayer AG shares are listed on the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, the London Stock Exchange and used to be listed on the New York Stock Exchange. On September 5, 2007, Bayer announced it intends to file for delisting of its American Depositary Shares (ADSs) from the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE). It is also planned to deregister with the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) and thereby terminate the respective reporting obligations.
Bayer is governed by a board of management, consisting of: Klaus Kühn, Wolfgang Plischke, Richard Pott, and Werner Wenning.
In 2004 Bayer Healthcare AG acquired the OTC Pharmaceutical Division of Roche Pharmaceuticals.
On March 13, 2006, Merck KGaA announced a €14.6bn bid for Schering. Merck's takeover bid was surpassed by Bayer's (successful) $19.5B white-knight bid for Schering on March 23, 2006.
Bayer AG was founded in Barmen (today a part of Wuppertal), Germany in 1863 by Friedrich Bayer and his partner, Johann Friedrich Weskott.
Bayer's first major product was acetylsalicylic acid (originally discovered by French chemist Charles Frederic Gerhardt in 1853), a modification of salicylic acid or salicin, a folk remedy found in the bark of the willow. By 1899, Bayer's trademark Aspirin was registered worldwide for Bayer's brand of acetylsalicylic acid, but because of the confiscation of Bayer's US assets and trademarks during World War I by the United States and the subsequent widespread usage of the word to describe all brands of the compound, "Aspirin" lost its trademark status in the United States and some other countries. It is now widely used in the US for all brands of the drug. However in some other countries, such as Canada,Mexico, Germany, and Switzerland it is still a registered trademark of Bayer.
In 1904, Bayer introduced the Bayer cross as its corporate logo, consisting of the horizontal word "BAYER" crossed with the vertical word "BAYER", both words sharing the "Y". Because Bayer's aspirin was sold through pharmacists and doctors only, and the company could not put their own packaging on the drug, the Bayer cross was imprinted on the actual tablets, so that customers would associate Bayer with its aspirin.
As part of the reparations after World War I, Bayer had its assets, including rights to its name and trademarks, confiscated in the United States, Canada, and several other countries. In the United States and Canada, Bayer's assets and trademarks were acquired by Sterling Drug, a predecessor of Sterling Winthrop.
Bayer became part of IG Farben, a conglomerate of German chemical industries which formed the financial core of the Nazi regime. IG Farben owned 42.5% of the company that manufactured Zyklon B, a chemical used in the gas chambers of Auschwitz. When the Allies split IG Farben after World War II for involvement in several Nazi war crimes, Bayer reappeared as an individual business. Bayer executive Fritz ter Meer, sentenced to seven years in prison by the Nuremberg War Crimes Tribunal, was made head of the supervisory board of Bayer in 1956, after his release. http://www.ahrp.org/infomail/05/01/27a.php
In 1978, Bayer purchased Miles Laboratories and its subsidiaries Miles Canada and Cutter Laboratories (along with a product line including Alka-Seltzer, Flintstones Vitamins and One-A-Day Vitamins, and Cutter insect repellent). In 1994, Bayer AG purchased Sterling Winthrop's over the counter drug business from SmithKline Beecham and merged it with Miles Laboratories, thereby reacquiring the U.S. trademark rights to "Bayer" and the Bayer cross.
Bayer has discovered, among others:
Bayer Animal Health
Bayer HealthCare's Animal Health Division is the maker of Advantage Multi™ (imidacloprid + moxidectin) Topical Solution for dogs and cats, Advantage® flea control for cats and dogs and K9 Advantix®, a flea, tick, and mosquito control product for dogs. Advantage Multi™, K9 Advantix® and Advantage® are trademarks of Bayer. The division is a worldwide leader in parasite control and prescription pharmaceuticals for dogs, cats, horses, and cattle. North American operation for the Animal Health Division are headquartered in Shawnee, Kansas. Bayer Animal Health is a division of Bayer HealthCare LLC, one of the world's leading healthcare companies.
In 2002 Bayer AG acquired Aventis CropScience and fused it with their own agrochemicals division (Bayer Pflanzenschutz or "Crop Protection") to form Bayer CropScience. The company is now one of the world's leading innovative crop science companies in the areas of crop protection, non-agricultural pest control, seeds and plant biotechnology. In addition to conventional agrochemical business it is involved in genetic engineering of food. The Flemish biotech company Plant Genetic Systems, became part of the company by the acquisition of Aventis CropScience.
Bayer 04 Leverkusen
In 1904, the company founded the sports club TuS 04 ("Turn- und Spielverein der Farbenfabriken vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co."), later SV Bayer 04 ("Sportvereinigung Bayer 04 Leverkusen"), finally becoming TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen ("Turn- und Sportverein") in 1984, generally however known simply as Bayer 04 Leverkusen. The club is best known for its soccer team, but has been involved in many other sports, including athletics, fencing, team handball, volleyball, boxing, and basketball. TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen is one of the largest sports clubs in Germany. The company also supports similar clubs at other company sites, including Dormagen (particularly handball), Wuppertal (particularly volleyball), and Krefeld-Uerdingen.
However, due to cost factors, the company has decided to cut back its sponsoring of its top sports teams in most areas. The sponsoring agreements with first and second-division teams in basketball, team handball, and volleyball, as well as in olympic-level athletics and fencing, will be terminated in 2008 or 2010. Despite their many successes (multiple German national championships as well as numerous Olympic medals), they are not considered to be valuable enough as a marketing tool in terms of their cost-to-benefit ratio. Only the very "telegenic" football (soccer) team, whose marketing value is very high due the exposure in the media and the popularity of the sport itself, will continue to be supported as in the past. General sponsoring of sport for youth and for handicapped people will also be continued as in the past.
In his book Aspirin: The Story of a Wonder Drug, by Diarmuid Jeffreys, Mr. Jeffreys states, that Bayer AG sponsored the experiments of Nazi torturer Dr. Josef Mengele. In 1956 Fritz ter Meer became chairman of Bayer after having been sentenced at the Nuremberg trials to seven years' imprisonment for his part in carrying out experiments on human subjects at Auschwitz. The Bayer chemist who first found an aspirin formulation which was tolerable in the human stomach and did not have the unpleasant side effects of nausea and gastric pain was Arthur Eichengrün . He also invented the name aspirin and was the first person to use the new formulation to test its safety and efficacy. However, Eichengrün was excluded from the official version of Bayer's history in 1934 because of his Jewish origin. Instead, it was claimed by Bayer that aspirin was "discovered" by an "Aryan" scientist, Felix Hoffman, to alleviate the sufferings of his rheumatic father. Surprisingly, Bayer AG is still perpetuating this myth. The claims of Mr. Jeffreys are widely reflected in other publications and official records such as:
     
More specifically, the genetically engineered rice has an herbicide-resistance trait. These forms of rice are commonly referred to amongst US rice growers as, Liberty Link Rice 601 or LL 601.
There are approximately 100 varieties of rice produced primarily in the following six states: Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, and California.
It is estimated that the US rice crop is valued at approximately $1.88 billion annually. In 2005, approximately 80% of the rice exported from the US was of the long grain variety. Unfortunately, the long grain variety is also the rice, which has been contaminated.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bayer". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|