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Beta-2 microglobulin

PDB rendering based on 1a1m.
Available structures: 1a1m, 1a1n, 1a1o, 1a6z, 1a9b, 1a9e, 1agb, 1agc, 1agd, 1age, 1agf, 1akj, 1ao7, 1b0g, 1b0r, 1bd2, 1c16, 1ce6, 1cg9, 1de4, 1duy, 1duz, 1e27, 1e28, 1eey, 1eez, 1efx, 1exu, 1gzp, 1gzq, 1hhg, 1hhh, 1hhi, 1hhj, 1hhk, 1hla, 1hsa, 1hsb, 1i1f, 1i1y, 1i4f, 1i7r, 1i7t, 1i7u, 1im3, 1im9, 1jf1, 1jgd, 1jge, 1jht, 1jnj, 1k5n, 1kpr, 1ktl, 1lds, 1lp9, 1m05, 1m6o, 1mhe, 1mi5, 1n2r, 1of2, 1oga, 1ogt, 1onq, 1p7q, 1py4, 1q94, 1qew, 1qlf, 1qqd, 1qr1, 1qrn, 1qse, 1qsf, 1qvo, 1r3h, 1s8d, 1s9w, 1s9x, 1s9y, 1sys, 1syv, 1t1w, 1t1x, 1t1y, 1t1z, 1t20, 1t21, 1t22, 1tmc, 1tvb, 1tvh, 1uqs, 1uxs, 1uxw, 1vgk, 1w0v, 1w0w, 1w72, 1x7q, 1xh3, 1xr8, 1xr9, 1xz0, 1ydp, 1ypz, 1zhk, 1zhl, 1zs8, 1zsd, 1zt4, 1zvs, 2a83, 2ak4, 2av1, 2av7, 2axf, 2axg, 2bck, 2bnq, 2bnr, 2bsr, 2bss, 2bst, 2bsu, 2bsv, 2bvo, 2bvp, 2bvq, 2c7u, 2cii, 2cik, 2clr, 2d31, 2d4d, 2d4f, 2dyp, 2esv, 2f53, 2f54, 2f74, 2f8o, 2fyy, 2fz3, 2git, 2gj6, 2h26, 2h6p, 2hjk, 2hjl, 2hla, 2hn7, 2nw3, 2nx5, 3hla
Symbol(s) B2M;
External IDs OMIM: 109700 MGI: 88127 Homologene: 2987
RNA expression pattern

More reference expression data

Human Mouse
Entrez 567 12010
Ensembl ENSG00000166710 ENSMUSG00000060802
Uniprot P61769 Q3U679
Refseq NM_004048 (mRNA)
NP_004039 (protein)
NM_009735 (mRNA)
NP_033865 (protein)
Location Chr 15: 42.79 - 42.8 Mb Chr 2: 121.84 - 121.84 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

β2 microglobulin is a component of MHC class I molecules, which are present on almost all cells of the body (red blood cells are a notable exception). β2 microglobulin lies lateral to the α3 chain on the cell surface. Unlike α3, β2 has no transmembrane region. Directly above β2 (i.e. away from the cell) lies the α1 chain, which itself is lateral to the α2. β2 microglobulin associates not only with the alpha chain of MHC class I molecules, but also with class I-like molecules such as CD1 and Qa.


In patients on long-term hemodialysis, it can aggregate into amyloid fibers that deposit in joint spaces, a disease known as dialysis-related amyloidosis.

Mice models deficient for the β2 microglobulin gene have been engineered. These mice demonstrate that β2 microglobulin is necessary for cell surface expression of MHC class I and stability of the peptide binding groove. In fact, in the absence of β2 microglobulin, very limited amounts of MHC class I (classical and non-classical) molecules can be detected on the surface. In the absence of MHC class I, CD8 T cells cannot develop. CD8 T cells are a subset of T cells involved in the development of acquired immunity.

Further reading

  • Winchester JF, Salsberg JA, Levin NW (2004). "Beta-2 microglobulin in ESRD: an in-depth review.". Advances in renal replacement therapy 10 (4): 279-309. PMID 14681859.
  • Krangel MS, Orr HT, Strominger JL (1980). "Assembly and maturation of HLA-A and HLA-B antigens in vivo.". Cell 18 (4): 979-91. PMID 93026.
  • Okon M, Bray P, Vucelić D (1992). "1H NMR assignments and secondary structure of human beta 2-microglobulin in solution.". Biochemistry 31 (37): 8906-15. PMID 1390678.
  • Guo HC, Jardetzky TS, Garrett TP, et al. (1992). "Different length peptides bind to HLA-Aw68 similarly at their ends but bulge out in the middle.". Nature 360 (6402): 364-6. doi:10.1038/360364a0. PMID 1448153.
  • Gattoni-Celli S, Kirsch K, Timpane R, Isselbacher KJ (1992). "Beta 2-microglobulin gene is mutated in a human colon cancer cell line (HCT) deficient in the expression of HLA class I antigens on the cell surface.". Cancer Res. 52 (5): 1201-4. PMID 1737380.
  • Saper MA, Bjorkman PJ, Wiley DC (1991). "Refined structure of the human histocompatibility antigen HLA-A2 at 2.6 A resolution.". J. Mol. Biol. 219 (2): 277-319. PMID 2038058.
  • Caruana RJ, Lobel SA, Leffell MS, et al. (1991). "Tumor necrosis factor, interleukin-1 and beta 2-microglobulin levels in chronic hemodialysis patients.". The International journal of artificial organs 13 (12): 794-8. PMID 2289831.
  • Connors LH, Shirahama T, Skinner M, et al. (1985). "In vitro formation of amyloid fibrils from intact beta 2-microglobulin.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 131 (3): 1063-8. PMID 2413854.
  • Hochman JH, Shimizu Y, DeMars R, Edidin M (1988). "Specific associations of fluorescent beta-2-microglobulin with cell surfaces. The affinity of different H-2 and HLA antigens for beta-2-microglobulin.". J. Immunol. 140 (7): 2322-9. PMID 2450918.
  • Homma N, Gejyo F, Isemura M, Arakawa M (1989). "Collagen-binding affinity of beta-2-microglobulin, a preprotein of hemodialysis-associated amyloidosis.". Nephron 53 (1): 37-40. PMID 2674742.
  • Bataille R, Grenier J, Commes T (1988). "In vitro production of beta 2 microglobulin by human myeloma cells.". Cancer Invest. 6 (3): 271-7. PMID 3048575.
  • Hönig R, Marsen T, Schad S, et al. (1989). "Correlation of beta-2-microglobulin concentration changes to changes of distribution volume.". The International journal of artificial organs 11 (6): 459-64. PMID 3060434.
  • Bjorkman PJ, Saper MA, Samraoui B, et al. (1987). "Structure of the human class I histocompatibility antigen, HLA-A2.". Nature 329 (6139): 506-12. doi:10.1038/329506a0. PMID 3309677.
  • Güssow D, Rein R, Ginjaar I, et al. (1987). "The human beta 2-microglobulin gene. Primary structure and definition of the transcriptional unit.". J. Immunol. 139 (9): 3132-8. PMID 3312414.
  • Cunningham BA, Wang JL, Berggård I, Peterson PA (1974). "The complete amino acid sequence of beta 2-microglobulin.". Biochemistry 12 (24): 4811-22. PMID 4586824.
  • Suggs SV, Wallace RB, Hirose T, et al. (1982). "Use of synthetic oligonucleotides as hybridization probes: isolation of cloned cDNA sequences for human beta 2-microglobulin.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78 (11): 6613-7. PMID 6171820.
  • Momoi T, Suzuki M, Titani K, et al. (1995). "Amino acid sequence of a modified beta 2-microglobulin in renal failure patient urine and long-term dialysis patient blood.". Clin. Chim. Acta 236 (2): 135-44. PMID 7554280.
  • Collins EJ, Garboczi DN, Karpusas MN, Wiley DC (1995). "The three-dimensional structure of a class I major histocompatibility complex molecule missing the alpha 3 domain of the heavy chain.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92 (4): 1218-21. PMID 7862664.
  • Matoba R, Okubo K, Hori N, et al. (1994). "The addition of 5'-coding information to a 3'-directed cDNA library improves analysis of gene expression.". Gene 146 (2): 199-207. PMID 8076819.
  • Wang Z, Cao Y, Albino AP, et al. (1993). "Lack of HLA class I antigen expression by melanoma cells SK-MEL-33 caused by a reading frameshift in beta 2-microglobulin messenger RNA.". J. Clin. Invest. 91 (2): 684-92. PMID 8432869.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Beta-2_microglobulin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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