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Bilberry



Bilberry

Bilberry in flower
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Ericales
Family: Ericaceae
Genus: Vaccinium
Species: V. myrtillus
Binomial name
Vaccinium myrtillus
L.

Bilberry is a name given to several species of low-growing shrubs in the genus Vaccinium (family Ericaceae) that bear tasty fruits. The species most often referred to is Vaccinium myrtillus L., also known as European blueberry, blaeberry, whortleberry, whinberry (or winberry), myrtle blueberry, fraughan, and probably other names regionally. They were called black-hearts in 19th century southern England, according to Thomas Hardy's 1878 novel, The Return of the Native, (pg. 311, Oxford World's Classics edition).

Additional recommended knowledge

  The word bilberry is also sometimes used in the common names of other species of the genus, including Vaccinium uliginosum L. (bog bilberry, bog blueberry, bog whortleberry, bog huckleberry, northern bilberry), Vaccinium caespitosum Michx. (dwarf bilberry), Vaccinium deliciosum Piper (Cascade bilberry), Vaccinium membranaceum (mountain bilberry, black mountain huckleberry, black huckleberry, twin-leaved huckleberry), and Vaccinium ovalifolium (oval-leafed blueberry, oval-leaved bilberry, mountain blueberry, high-bush blueberry).

Bilberries are found in damp, acidic soils throughout the temperate and subarctic regions of the world. They are closely related to North American wild and cultivated blueberries and huckleberries in the genus Vaccinium. The easiest way to distinguish the bilberry is that it produces single or pairs of berries on the bush instead of clusters like the blueberry. Another way to distinguish them is that while blueberry fruit pulp is light green, bilberry is red or purple. In this way you can also distinguish the bilberry eater from the blueberry eater by his red fingers and lips. Bilberry is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species - see list of Lepidoptera that feed on Vaccinium.   Bilberries are seldom cultivated but fruits are sometimes collected from wild plants growing on publicly accessible lands, notably in Fennoscandia, Scotland, Ireland and Poland. Note that in Fennoscandia, it is an everyman's right to collect bilberries, irrespective of land ownership. Bilberries can be picked by a berry-picking rake like lingonberries, but are more susceptible to damage.

In Ireland the fruit is known as fraughan, from the Irish fraochán, and is traditionally gathered on the last Sunday in July, known as Fraughan Sunday.

Bilberries were also collected at Lughnassadh in August, the first traditional harvest festival of the year, as celebrated by the Gaelic people. The crop of bilberries was said to indicate how well the rest of the crops would fare in their harvests later in the year.

The fruits can be eaten fresh, but are more usually made into jams, fools, juices or pies. In France they are used as a base for liqueurs and are a popular flavouring for sorbets and other desserts. In Brittany they are often used as a flavouring for crêpes, and in the Vosges and the Massif Central bilberry tart (tarte aux myrtilles) is the most traditional dessert.

Medicinal uses

  Often associated with improvement of night vision, bilberries are mentioned in a popular story of World War II RAF pilots consuming bilberry jam to sharpen vision for night missions. However, a recent study[1] by the U.S. Navy found no such effect and origins of the RAF story cannot be found[2].

Laboratory studies have shown that bilberry consumption can inhibit or reverse eye disorders such as macular degeneration[3], but this therapeutic use remains clinically unproven.

As a deep blue fruit, bilberries contain dense levels of anthocyanin pigments that have been linked experimentally to lowered risk for several diseases[4], such as those of the heart and cardiovascular system, eyes and cancer[5][6][7].

In folk medicine, bilberry leaves were used to treat gastrointestinal ailments, applied topically, or made into infusions. Such effects have not been scientifically proven.

 

See also

  • List of fruits
  • List of vegetables

References

  1. ^ Muth ER, Laurent JM, Jasper P. The effect of bilberry nutritional supplementation on night visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Altern Med Rev. 2000 Apr;5(2):164-73. Abstract.
  2. ^ [1] Bilberry Bombs, WebMD, October 2000
  3. ^ Fursova AZh, Gesarevich OG, Gonchar AM, Trofimova NA, Kolosova NG. Dietary supplementation with bilberry extract prevents macular degeneration and cataracts in senesce-accelerated OXYS rats. Adv Gerontol. 2005;16:76-9. (Article in Russian). Abstract.
  4. ^ [2] Gross PM. Scientists zero in on health benefits of berry pigments, Natural Products Information Center, July 2007
  5. ^ Bell DR, Gochenaur K. Direct vasoactive and vasoprotective properties of anthocyanin-rich extracts. J Appl Physiol. 2006 Apr;100(4):1164-70. Abstract.
  6. ^ Chung HK, Choi SM, Ahn BO, Kwak HH, Kim JH, Kim WB. Efficacy of troxerutin on streptozotocin-induced rat model in the early stage of diabetic retinopathy. Arzneimittelforschung. 2005;55(10):573-80. Abstract.
  7. ^ Roy S, Khanna S, Alessio HM, Vider J, Bagchi D, Bagchi M, Sen CK. Anti-angiogenic property of edible berries. Free Radic Res. 2002 Sep;36(9):1023-31.Abstract.
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This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Bilberry". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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