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Boswellic acid



  Boswellic acids are a series of pentacyclic triterpene molecules which are produced by plants in the genus Boswellia. Like many other terpenes, boswellic acids appear in the resin of the plant which exudes them; it is estimated that they make up 30% of the resin of B. serrata.[1]

Additional recommended knowledge

Structure

    The boswellic acids are organic acids, consisting of a pentacyclic triterpene, a carboxyl group and at least one other functional group. Alpha-boswellic acid and beta-boswellic acid, C30H48O3 both have an additional hydroxyl group; they differ only in their triterpene structure. Acetyl-alpha-boswellic acid and acetyl-beta-boswellic acid, C32H50O4, replace the hydroxyl group with an acetyl group.

Other boswellic acids include the keto-boswellic acids and their acetyl counterparts.

Uses

Beta-boswellic acid, keto-beta-boswellic acid and acetyl-keto-beta-boswellic acid have been implicated in apoptosis of cancer cells, particularly brain tumors and cells affected by leukemia or colon cancer.[2]

Acetyl-boswellic acids also exhibit anti-inflammatory behaviour by inhibiting leukotriene synthesis.[3] Specifically, it inhibits the activity of the enzyme 5-lipoxygenase through a non-redox reaction. Clinical trials[4][5] have investigated the effectiveness of boswellic acids in treating ulcerative colitis, but a study on chemically induced colitis in mouse models[6] showed little effectiveness. This latter study also linked large doses of boswellic acids to hepatotoxicity and increased lipid accumulation. Paradoxically, low doses of Boswellia serrata extract may have hepatoprotective effects.[7]

Boswellic acids are also thought to decrease the symptoms of asthma; a small 1998 placebo-controlled trial of Boswellia extract for the treatment of asthma showed good results.[8] Boswellia extracts are sold in tablet, capsule and tincture form, but no dosage guidelines have been developed. The risk of hepatotoxicity due to Boswellia administration has not been assessed.

References

  1. ^ SaluGenecists, Inc. Boswellia information.
  2. ^ Liu, Jian-Jun; Nilsson, A., Oredsson, S., Badmaev, V., Zhao, W., Duan, R. (December 2002). "Boswellic acids trigger apoptosis via a pathway dependent on caspase-8 activation but independent on Fas/Fas ligand interaction in colon cancer HT-29 cells". Carcinogenesis 23 (12): 2087-2093. Oxford University Press.
  3. ^ Ammon, HP; Safayi, H., Mack, T., Sabieraj, J. (1993). "Mechanism of antiinflammatory actions of curcumine and boswellic acids". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 38 (2-3): 113-9. International Society of Ethnopharmacology.
  4. ^ Ammon, HP (2002). "Boswellic acids (components of frankincense) as the active principle in treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases". Wien Medizinsche Wochenschrift 152 (15-16): 373-8. Springer-Verlag Wien.
  5. ^ Anthoni, C.; Laukoetter, M.G., Rijcken, E., Vowinkel, T., Mennigen, R., Muller, S., Senninger, N., Russell, J., Jauch, J., Bergmann, J., Granger, D.N., Krieglstein, C.F. (June 2006). "Mechanisms underlying the anti-inflammatory actions of boswellic acid derivatives in experimental colitis". American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 290 (6): G1131-7. American Physiological Society.
  6. ^ Kiela, P.R.; Midura, A.J., Kuscuoglu, N., Jolad, S.D., Solyom, A.M., Besselsen, D.G., Timmermann, B.N., Ghishan, F.K. (April 2005). "Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis". American Journal of Physiology: Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology 288 (4): G798-808. American Physiological Society.
  7. ^ Y J, Kamath J, Asad M (2006). "Effect of hexane extract of Boswellia serrata oleo-gum resin on chemically induced liver damage". Pak J Pharm Sci 19 (2): 129-33. PMID 16751123.
  8. ^ Gupta I, Gupta V, Parihar A, Gupta S, Lüdtke R, Safayhi H, Ammon H (1998). "Effects of Boswellia serrata gum resin in patients with bronchial asthma: results of a double-blind, placebo-controlled, 6-week clinical study". Eur J Med Res 3 (11): 511–4. PMID 9810030.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Boswellic_acid". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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