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Clemens Winkler

Karl Friedrich von Auwers
BornDecember 29 1838(1838-12-29)
Freiberg, Saxony, Germany
DiedOctober 8 1904 (aged 65)
Dresden, Germany
InstitutionsBlaufarbenwerk Niederpfannenstiel,
Freiberg University of Mining and Technology
Alma materFreiberg University of Mining and Technology 1859,
University of Leipzig 1864

Clemens Alexander Winkler (December 26, 1838 - October 8, 1904), a German chemist, discovered the element Germanium in 1886. This discovery solidified Dmitri Mendeleev's theory of periodicity. Mendeleev's thoughts on the element came really close to what the actual element was like.

Winkler was born in 1838 in Freiberg, Saxony, Germany. When he entered the Freiberg University of Mining and Technology at age 19, his knowledge of the subjects surpassed what he was taught there. Sixteen years after he attended the school, he was appointed a professor at Freiberg. He died in 1904 in Dresden.

Discovery of Germanium

Winkler was provided by a new mineral from the mine Himmelsfürst near Freiberg in 1886. The mineral, which was called "Argyrodit" contained silver and sulfur and 6-7% of an un identified element. After several chemical purifications steps he was able to obtain the pure germanium and published the results.[1] To place the new element into the periodic table, Mendeleev stated in a publication, it might be ekacadmium, while Meyer favoured ekasilicon. Winkler isolated more of the element and published the some physical and chemical properties.[2] Meyer was right and the properties of germanium and the proposed ecasilicum by Mendeleev gave a clear evidence that the concept of the periodic table was usefull.[3]


  1. ^ C. Winkler (1886). "Germanium, Ge, ein neues, nichtmetallisches Element". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 19: 210-211. doi:10.1002/cber.18860190156.
  2. ^ C. Winkler (1887). "Mittheilungen über das Germanium". Journal für Praktische Chemie 36 (1): 177 - 209. doi:10.1002/prac.18870360119.
  3. ^ C. Winkler (1899). "Zur Entdeckung des Germaniums". Berichte der deutschen chemischen Gesellschaft 32: 307 - 308. doi:10.1002/cber.18990320150.
  • Klaus Volke (2004). "Clemens Winkler - zum 100. Todestag". Chemie in unserer Zeit 38 (5): 360 - 361. doi:10.1002/ciuz.200490078.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Clemens_Winkler". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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