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Copper plating is the process in which a layer of copper is deposited on the item to be plated by using an electric current. Three basic types of processes are commercially available based upon the complexing system utilized. They are alkaline-(several modifications of cyanide and non-cyanide); acid-(sulfate and fluoborate); and mildly alkaline-(pyro phosphate) complexed baths. With a higher current, hydrogen bubbles will form on the item to be plated, leaving surface imperfections. Often various other chemicals are added to improve plating uniformity and brightness. Without some form of additive, it is almost impossible to obtain anything close to reasonable plating. These additives can be anything from dish soap to proprietary compounds.
Additional recommended knowledge
A treatment known as Ebonol, a black oxide, is sometimes used as a blackening agent after copper plating for space hardware applications and in jewelry.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Copper_plating". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|