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In semiconductors physics the term donor is used to generically indicate a dopant atom that added to a semiconductor can form n-type regions.
Additional recommended knowledge
For example, when Silicon (Si), having four valence electrons, needs to be doped as an n-type semiconductor, elements from group V like Phosphorus (P) or Arsenic (As) can be used because they have five valence electrons. When substituting a Si atom in the crystalline lattice, four of the valence electrons form covalent bonds with the neighbouring Si atoms but the fifth one remains weekly bonded. At room temperature all the fifth electrons are liberated, can move around the Si crystal and can carry a current. The initially neutral donor becomes positively charged (ionised).
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Donor_(semiconductors)". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|