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Electron beam tomography
Electron beam tomography is a specific form of computed axial tomography (CAT or CT) in which the X-Ray tube is not mechanically spun in order to rotate the source of X-Ray photons. This different design was explicitly developed to better image heart structures which never stop moving, performing a complex complete cycle of movement with each heart beat.
As in conventional CT technology, the X-ray source still rotates around the circle in space containing an object to be imaged tomographically, but the X-Ray tube is much larger than the imaging circle and the electron beam current within the vacuum tube is swept electronically, in a circular (partial circle actually) path and focused on a stationary tungsten anode target ring.
Additional recommended knowledge
The principal application advantage of EBT tomographic CT machines and the reason for the invention, is that the X-Ray source is swept electronically, not mechanically, and can thus be swept with far greater speed than with conventional CT machines based on mechanically spun X-Ray tubes.
The major medical application for which this design technology was invented in the 1980s, namely for imaging the human heart. The heart never stops moving, and some important structures, such as arteries, move several times their diameter during each heartbeat. Rapid imaging is, thus, important to prevent blurring of moving structures during the scan. The most advanced current commercial designs can perform image sweeps in as little as 0.025 seconds. By comparison, the fastest mechanically swept X-Ray tube designs require about 0.33 seconds to perform an image sweep. For reference, current coronary artery angiography imaging is usually performed at 30 frames/second or 0.033 seconds/frame; EBT is far closer to this than mechanically swept CT machines.
As in standard X-Ray tubes, part of the electron current energy when hitting the tungsten target is converted into photons. However, instead of spinning a small target anode in order to dissipate waste heat, the electron current focus spot is swept along a large stationary target anode.
The electron current sweep is aimed using wound copper coil magnetic deflection yokes, as in a cathode ray tube (CRT). However, the entire structure of the cathode, deflection yokes, anode and overall vacuum tube size is much larger, therefore made out of steel, not glass, with the main central open mid-section of the vacuum tube hollow, leaving room for the scan table and object or person to lie while the scan is performed.
Given the vastly larger size and low production volume of the EBT design, only about 120 exist in the world, as of 2004, vs. thousands of more conventional design CT machines. This CT scanner design has remained more expensive, by over double, than the more widely sold CT design in which a small, more conventional X-Ray tube is mechanically spun.
Whether the inherent sweep-speed advantage will maintain commercial viability of the EBT design remains unclear at this time. As of 2002, one major company owns and offers models in both competing designs, with engineering cross-pollination of techniques between the product design teams. As of 2005, it increasingly appears that the spiral CT designs, especially those with (b) 64 detector rows, (b) 3 x 360°/sec rotation speeds and designed for cardiac imaging, are largely replacing the EBT design from a commercial and medical perspective. However, EBT still offers sweep speeds of effectively 50 x 360°/sec rotation speeds and lower radiation exposure. The latest version of the EBT eSpeed offers a 33ms sweep time. While there are very few of these scanners in use, this technology represents the fastest commercial CT temporal resolution.
Categories: Radiology | Medical imaging
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Electron_beam_tomography". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|