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Fast Multipole Method

The Fast Multipole Method (FMM) is a mathematical technique that was developed to speed up the calculation of the N-Body Problem. It does this by expanding the system Green's Function using a Multipole Expansion, which allows one to group sources that lie close together and treat them as if they are a single source.

The FMM has also been applied in accelerating the iterative solver in the Method of Moments (MOM) as applied to computational electromagnetics problems. The FMM was first introduced in this manner by Greengard and Rokhlin [1] and is based on the multipole expansion of the vector Helmholtz equation. By treating the interactions between far-away basis functions using the FMM, the corresponding matrix elements do not need to explicitly stored, resulting in a tremendous savings in the required system memory. If the FMM is then applied in a hierarchical manner, it can improve the complexity matrix-vector product in an iterative solver from O(N2) to O(NlogN). This has expanded the area of applicability of the MOM to far greater problems than were previously possible.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Fast_Multipole_Method". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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