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Gemesis



The Gemesis Corporation is a privately-held company founded by Carter Clarke in Sarasota, Florida, United States. The corporation creates cultured diamonds using proprietary Soviet technology.

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During the Cold War, Soviet scientists developed the diamond synthesis technology because diamond is the best substrate for strategic semi-conductor electronics that are less susceptible to the electromagnetic pulse of nuclear blasts. The Soviet technology fell into American's hands after the downfall of the Soviet Union. The technology is no longer used for weapon development, but for gemstone production.

While visiting Moscow in 1995 someone asked retired Army General and West Point graduate Carter Clarke if he wanted to buy a diamond making machine. Three months later he visited Moscow again with the scientist Reza Abbaschian and brought 3 of the machines and also 3 Russian scientists to Sarasota, Florida. After 7 years of research and development in cooperation with experts from the University of Florida his company brought high quality diamonds onto the market.

Carbon, in graphite form, is mixed with a metal flux in a cylindrical shape. A tiny seed diamond is placed at the bottom of the cylinder. The metal and graphite are subjected to extreme pressure, 850,000 lbf/in³ (5.9 MPa) and temperature, 3000 °F (1600 °C) for four days. During the period, the carbon atoms within the molten metal crystallize on top of the seed diamond. A three carat (600 mg) bright yellow gem quality diamond is produced inside the resolidified metal cylinder at the end. The metal cylinder is then dissolved in mild acid until the diamond crystal is extracted.

With the addition or elimination of certain impurities under controlled conditions, diamonds of various color can be produced. Since nitrogen is abundant in the atmosphere, this process is more likely to produce bright yellow diamonds than any other color. The yellow tint occurs when approximately five out of each 100,000 carbon atoms in the diamond crystal lattice are replaced with nitrogen atoms. It is ironic because natural yellow diamonds often have higher value than white diamonds.


 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Gemesis". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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