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Systematic (IUPAC) name
(1,1-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyrrol-3-yl) 2-cyclopentyl-2-hydroxy-2-phenyl-acetate
CAS number 596-51-0
ATC code A03AB02
PubChem 3494
DrugBank APRD01000
Chemical data
Formula C19H28NO3+
Mol. mass 318.431 g/mol
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life 0.6–1.2 hours
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.


Legal status
Routes  ?

Glycopyrrolate is a medication of the muscarinic anticholinergic group. It is a synthetic quaternary amine with no central effects and is available in oral and intravenous (i.v.) forms, although oral absorption is less than 5%.

Medical uses

Glycopyrrolate blocks peripheral muscarinic receptors, thus inhibiting cholinergic transmission.

In anesthesia, glycopyrrolate injection can be used as a preoperative medication on order to reduce salivary, tracheobronchial, and pharyngeal secretions, as well as decreasing the acidity of gastric secretion. It is also used in conjunction with neostigmine, a neuromuscular blocking reversal agent, to prevent neostigmine's muscarinic effects such as bradycardia. It is also used in neurological conditions such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis to reduce excessive saliva which may pool in the mouth or leak out, causing discomfort and embarrassment.

It decreases acid secretion in the stomach and so may be used for treating stomach ulcers, in combination with other medications.

Side effects

Glycopyrrolate reduces the body's sweating ability, can even cause fever and heat stroke in high temperatures. Dry mouth, difficult urinating, headaches, diarrhea and constipation are also observed side effects of the medication.

The medication also induces drowsiness or blurred visions, an effect exacerbated by the consumption of alcohol.

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Glycopyrrolate". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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