My watch list
my.chemeurope.com  
Login  

Jack Drummond



Jack Drummond
Born12 Jan 1891
London
Died4 August or August 5 1952 (aged 61)
nr Lurs (France)
Residence England
Nationality English
FieldBiochemistry
Nutrition
InstitutionsUniversity College London
Alma materQueen Mary, University of London
King's College London
Known fornaming of vitamins
nutrition under wartime rationing
There is much speculation over the identity of his muderer or murderers, and the motive behind the crime.

Sir Jack Cecil Drummond D.Sc., FRIC, FRS (12 Jan 1891—4 Aug or 5 Aug 1952) was a distinguished biochemist, noted for his work on nutrition as applied to the British diet under rationing during the Second World War. He was murdered, together with his wife and 10-year old daughter, on the night of 4 Aug - 5 Aug 1952 near Lurs, a village or commune in the Basses-Alpes region (now Alpes-de-Haute-Provence) of Southern France.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Early life

Jack Drummond was born in the largely working-class area of Kennington in south London, the son of Colonel John Drummond of the Royal Horse Artillery and his wife (or lover) Gertrude Drummond. John died at age 55, only three months after Jack's birth. Jack was adopted and raised by John's sister Maria Spinks, who lived in nearby Charlton. Maria's husband, George, was a retired captain quartermaster, who had seen action in the Crimea. According to James Fergusson, life cannot have been much fun for the solitary boy in the elderly couple's home.[1] He attended the John Roan School[2] in Greenwich and King's College School in the Strand.[3][4]

Drummond's family origins remain unclear. No birth certificate exists for him in the Family Records Office. His father John, the major, describes himself as a bachelor in his will, which makes no mention of a son. In the 1891 census Jack's name was given as Cecil, his mother's as Gertrude Drummond, and her age as 29. It is not known what happened to Gertrude, or whether she was married to John. In the 1901 census, his name is recorded as Jack Cecil Spinks, taking his adoptive mother's surname. It is likely that as a boy Jack used the surname Spinks to avoid social embarrassment to his adoptive parents, but reverted to the surname Drummond sometime during his teens.[5]

Marriage

On 17 July 1915 Drummond married Mable Helen Straw, who had also been an undergraduate at East London College. Their marriage lasted 24 years until in 1939 it broke up because of Drummond's affair with his secretary and co-author, Anne Wilbraham, born on 9 Dec 1904. Jack and Anne married on 15 June 1940.[6] Jack and Anne had one child, Elizabeth, born on 23 March 1942.

Scientific career

After graduating with First Class honours in chemistry in 1912 at Queen Mary, University of London (then called East London College),[7] Jack Drummond became a research assistant in the department of physiology at King's College London, working under Otto Rosenheim and the professor W.D. Halliburton. In 1914 he moved to the Cancer Hospital Research Institute, where he worked with Casimir Funk, who had coined the word vitamine (from vital amine). This was when Drummond first became interested in nutrition. In 1917 Halliburton invited Drummond to join him in experimental work on substitutes for butter and margarine. As a result of this work, fat-soluble vitamins became one of his major fields of interest. It also led him to the study of practical problems of human nutrition, and in 1918 he published a paper in The Lancet on infant feeding.[8]

In 1919 he moved to University College London (UCL) to work on physiological chemistry, the precursor to modern biochemistry.[9] In 1920, he proposed that the "vital substances" discovered by Elmer Verner McCollum and by Casimir Funk should be called Vitamins A and B respectively, to contrast them with his proposed antiscurvy factor, Vitamin C. He also dropped the final "e" from Funk's designation, because not all vitamins contain an amine group. In 1922, at the early age of 31, he became the first[10] Professor of Biochemistry at UCL, and held that position until 1945 (in absentia from 1939). He was also Dean of the Faculty of Medical Sciences from 1929 to 1932.[11]

In the 1930s, he succeeded in isolating pure vitamin A.[10] Also in the 1930s, he became increasingly aware of the need to apply the new science of nutrition in practice. This awareness, combined with his interest in gastronomy, led him to study the English diet over the previous 500 years. He published the results of this study as the book The Englishman’s Food: A History of Five Centuries of English Diet (co-authored with his second wife Anne Wilbraham) in 1939.

The Ministry of Food consulted him on the gas contamination of food at the outbreak of war, and on 16 October 1939 appointed him chief adviser on food contamination. Drummond interested himself in the various scientific aspects of the ministry's work, and urged the creation of a co-ordinating unit within the ministry with a scientific liaison officer in charge. On 1 February 1940 he was appointed Scientific Adviser to the Ministry of Food. When Lord Woolton became Minister of Food in April 1940, Drummond produced a plan for the distribution of food based on "sound nutritional principles". He recognised that rationing was the perfect opportunity to attack what he called "dietetic ignorance", and that, if successful, he would be able not just to maintain but to improve the nation's health. Thanks to Drummond's advice, the effect of rationing was to introduce more protein and vitamins to the diet of the poorest in society, while the better off were obliged to cut their consumption of meat, fats, sugar and eggs. Follow-up studies after the war showed that, despite rationing and the stresses of war, the population's health had improved.[12] He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society on 16 March 1944, and was knighted in the same year.[13]

In 1944, Drummond became an adviser on nutrition to Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force and in 1945 to the allied control commissions for Germany and Austria. Also in 1945 he joined Boots Pure Drug Company as Director of Research, but remained seconded to the Ministry of Food until 1946.

Drummond's career move to Boots at Nottingham was surprising to many of his former colleagues. It was also surprising that a man who had publicly advocated the exhaustive testing of new agrochemicals should have been responsible for the developmnet of possibly harmful products such as Cornox, based on Dichlorprop, one of the chlorine-based phenoxy family of hormone weed-killers descended from ICI's wartime invention MCPA. Concerns about the lack of data on the toxicity of Dichlorprop led to its withdrawal from the UK market in 2003.[14] On the other hand, Drummond's successor as Boots's director of research, Gordon Hobday, described Drummond as "an altruist" who had committed substantial research resources into cures for tropical diseases. Hobday had quickly cancelled this research, saying "there was never any money in it".[15]

Murder

Main article: Drummond murders

On the evening of 4 August 1952, while on holiday in France in their green Hillman estate car, the Drummonds stopped by the side of the N96 main road, less than 200 metres from a picturesque farmhouse called La Grand'Terre. The site is marked by a milestone as exactly 6km south of Peyruis and 6km north of La Brillanne. A footpath leads from the site down to the banks of the river Durance.

La Grand'Terre was the home of the Dominicis, a family of Franco-Italian peasant farmers: the patriarch Gaston, his wife Marie, their son Gustave, Gustave's wife Yvette and their baby son Alain. It was Gustave who claimed to have found the three dead bodies around 5:30am on the morning of 5 August, and who flagged down a passing motorcyclist, Jean-Marie Olivier, telling him to fetch the police.

Anne's body was found near the car. Jack's lay on the other side of the N96, covered by a camp bed. They had both been shot by a Rock-Ola rifle. The body of 10-year-old Elizabeth was found 77 metres away, down the path leading to the river, on the other side of the bridge over the railway. Her head had been brutally smashed in by the stock of the rifle. The barrel of the murder weapon was soon found in the river, with the stock a short distance downstream. It is likely that the force of the blow or blows used to kill Elizabeth had also broken the stock off the rifle.

Gaston Dominici was convicted of the murders in November 1954, and sentenced to the Guillotine. However, both the police investigation and the conduct of the trial had been widely criticised, and after two inconclusive inquiries, President René Coty commuted the sentence to life imprisonment. Coty was succeeded in 1959 by President Charles de Gaulle, who ordered Dominici's release on humanitarian grounds, but did not pardon him, nor grant his request for a retrial.[16]

The Drummonds are buried in the classified cemetery of the well-known tourist town of Forcalquier, about 25 km East of Lurs. As Sir Jack had no more family, and the mother of Anne, Mrs Wilbraham didn't ask for the bodies, exceptionally three British citizens are not buried in the UK. On the site of the drama near the stone bridge over the railway, there is a cross with childish votive offerings to mark the place where Elizabeth was found.

The murders remain a subject of hot dispute to this day in France, where they are referred to as L'affaire Dominici. Alain Dominici, a baby at the time of the murders, has spent a lifetime campaigning for the innocence of his grandfather.

Awards and honours

  • 1918 D.Sc. from University of London
  • 1944 knighted
  • 1944 elected FRS
  • 1946 Commander (Civil Division) of the Order of Orange-Nassau[17]
  • 1946 elected Honorary Member of the New York Academy of Sciences[18]
  • 1947 Lasker Group Award of the APHA[19]
  • 1948 honorary doctorate from University of Paris[3][20][19]
  • United States Medal of Freedom with Silver Palms[3][20]

Notes

  1. ^ Fergusson, pp15-16
  2. ^ This would have been the school's 1877 premises, and not the present building on Maze Hill, which was built in 1926. See Public Monument and Sculpture Association National Recording Project (John Roan School)
  3. ^ a b c Sinclair, H. M.; revised Peter Osborne (2004). Drummond, Sir Jack Cecil (1891–1952). Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. OUP. DOI:10.1093/ref:odnb/32900. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.
  4. ^ ODNB has Drummond as attending King's College School in The Strand, but there must be some doubt about this, since the school moved to Wimbledon in 1897, when Jack was only 6. Also if Jack Drummond did attend KCS, it is likely that he must have had a scholarship to do so, as his family would not have been able to afford the fees.
  5. ^ Fergusson, pp186-7
  6. ^ MacLean, Helena. Personal Biography - Sir Jack Drummond. Retrieved on 2007-07-07.
  7. ^ The Drummond Lecture in Biochemistry. Queen Mary, University of London (9 Dec 2005). Retrieved on 2007-05-31.
  8. ^ Drummond, Jack (1918). "Some aspects of infant feeding". The Lancet 2: 482.
  9. ^ Campbell, Peter. A Brief history of Biochemistry at UCL (Microsoft Word). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  10. ^ a b Biochemical Engineering at UCL. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  11. ^ ROYAL FREE & UNIVERSITY COLLEGE MEDICAL SCHOOL - (Drummond Prizes). Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  12. ^ Fergusson, p19
  13. ^ Royal Society - details of Sir Jack Drummond. Retrieved on 2007-05-29.
  14. ^ Fergusson, pp167-168
  15. ^ Fergusson, pp174-175
  16. ^ Fergusson, p164
  17. ^ Young, pp119-120
  18. ^ Young, p119
  19. ^ a b UCL: Drummond Certificates. AIM25 (1999, rev Aug 2001). Retrieved on 2007-06-16.
  20. ^ a b Fergusson, p40

References

  • Boyd-Orr, John (Sep 1952). "Sir Jack Drummond, FRS". Nature 170 (4323): 402. doi:10.1038/170402a0. Retrieved on 2007-05-29. (obituary)
  • Drummond, Jack Cecil; Anne Wilbraham (1958). The Englishman's food: A history of five centuries of English diet. Jonathan Cape, 482pp. ASIN: B0000CJW9T.  (first published 1939, revised by Dot Hollingworth)
  • Fergusson, James (2007). The Vitamin Murders: Who Killed Healthy Eating in Britain?. Portobello Books Ltd, 240pp. ISBN 1846270146. 
  • Young, F.G. (Nov 1954). "Jack Cecil Drummond 1891-1952". Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society 9 (1): pp98-129. Royal Society. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.

in French

  • Badin, Raymond (2002). L'Erreur judiciaire du siècle. Éd. Historia. 
  • Deniau, Jean-Charles; Sultan, Madeleine (2004). Dominici: C'était une affaire de famille. L'Archipel, 305pp. ISBN 284187642X. 
  • Guerrier, Eric (2 Oct 2007). L'affaire Dominici : Expertise du triple crime de Lurs. Cheminements. ISBN 2844786030. 
  • Giono, Jean (1955). Notes sur l'affaire Dominici. Gallimard. ISBN 2070228290. 
  • Mossé, Claude (2003). Dominici innocent ! La Véritable histoire. Éditions du Rocher, 271pp. ISBN 2268047393.  (first published 1993)
  • Reymond, William. L'Affaire Dominici, les assassins retrouvés. Éd. Flammarion. 

in Spanish

  • Barthes, Roland. Mitologias. Siglo Veintiuno Editores.  (Section: Dominici o el triunfo de la literatura)

See also


Persondata
NAME Drummond, Jack
ALTERNATIVE NAMES Drummond, Sir Jack; Drummond, Jack Cecil
SHORT DESCRIPTION Biochemist, Nutrition
DATE OF BIRTH 12 Jan 1891
PLACE OF BIRTH London
DATE OF DEATH 4 August or 5 August 1952
PLACE OF DEATH nr Lurs (France)
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Jack_Drummond". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
Your browser is not current. Microsoft Internet Explorer 6.0 does not support some functions on Chemie.DE