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Johann Friedrich Schweitzer

Johann Friedrich Schweitzer[1](1625-1709) was a Dutch physician and alchemical writer, of German extraction. He is known for his book Vitulus Aureus (The Golden Calf), published in 1667. Another book is Ichts aus Nichts, für alle Begierigen der Natur from 1655.

He is notorious for the story that he actually carried out transmutation of lead into gold. He is also said to have been physician to the Prince of Orange of the time. His birthplace is given as Köthen, Anhalt[2]. He is said to have known Baruch Spinoza.[2]

He was an ancestor of the philosopher Claude-Adrien Helvétius.[3]


  • Arthur Edward Waite, John Frederick Helvetius: The Famous Alchemist
  • Works by Johann FriedricK Helvetius at Project Gutenberg
    • The Golden Calf, Which the World Adores, and Desires by John Frederick Helvetius, online text at Project Gutenberg


  1. ^ Joannes Fridericus Helvetius, in Latin, often known as Helvetius.
  2. ^ See M. Nierenstein Helvetius, Spinoza, and Transmutation Isis, Vol. 17, No. 2 (1932), pp. 408-411.
  3. ^ His great-grandfather, through Jean-Adrien Helvétius, 1662-1727, who introduced the use of ipecac in his position at the French court, father of another court physician Jean-Claude-Adrien Helvétius, 1685 – 1755, and grandfather to Claude-Adrien.[1]
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Johann_Friedrich_Schweitzer". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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