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Lead cooled fast reactor
The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast neutron spectrum, molten lead or lead-bismuth eutectic coolant, and a closed fuel cycle. Options include a range of plant ratings, including a number of 50 to 150 MWe (megawatts electric) units featuring long-life, pre-manufactured cores. Plans include modular arrangements rated at 300 to 400 MW, and a large monolithic plant rated at 1,200 MW. The fuel is metal or nitride-based containing fertile uranium and transuranics. The LFR is cooled by natural convection with a reactor outlet coolant temperature of 550 °C, possibly ranging over 800 °C with advanced materials. Temperatures higher than 830 °C are high enough to support thermochemical production of hydrogen.
Additional recommended knowledge
Modular nuclear reactors
The LFR battery is a small factory-built turnkey plant operating on a closed fuel cycle with very long refueling interval (15 to 20 years) cassette cores or replaceable reactor modules. Its features are designed to meet market opportunities for electricity production on small grids, and for developing countries that may not wish to deploy an indigenous fuel cycle infrastructure to support their nuclear energy systems. The modular "battery" system (ie consisting of a number of identical elements, not "battery" in the sense of an electro-chemical energy storage system), is designed for distributed generation of electricity and other energy products, including hydrogen and potable water.
LFR reactors OK-550 and BM-40A, capable of producing 155 MW of power, have been applied on soviet Alfa class submarines. They were significantly lighter than typical water-cooled reactors and had an advantage of being capable to quickly switch between maximum power and minimum noise operation modes, but lacked reliability, as solidifying of lead-bismuth solution turned the reactor inoperable.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lead_cooled_fast_reactor". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|