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Legal status of Salvia divinorum



Main article: Salvia divinorum

  The situation may be subject to future change but at present Salvia divinorum remains legal in most countries. Current exceptions, countries where there is some form of control, include Australia, Belgium, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy, Spain, and Sweden.[1][2] In the United Kingdom, following a local newspaper story in October 2005,[3] a parliamentary Early Day Motion was raised calling for Salvia divinorum to be banned there. However, it only received 11 signatures and has not been debated or further escalated.[4]

In such places where Salvia divinorum legislation exists, it varies in its prohibitive degree from country to country. Australia has imposed its strictest 'Schedule 9' (US Schedule I equivalent) classification for example, and Italy has also placed Salvia in its 'Table I' of controlled substances (also US Schedule I equivalent). - Whereas in Spain there are just controls focusing on the commercial trade of Salvia divinorum, and private cultivation (growing your own plants for non-commercial use) is not targeted. In Germany there are also measures targeting commercial sales, i.e. in any shops that are not drugstores.[1][2]

In the United States, Salvia is not regulated under the Controlled Substances Act but some states, including Delaware, Louisiana, Missouri and others, have passed their own laws.[5] Several other states have proposed legislation against Salvia, including Alabama, Alaska, California, Florida, Iowa, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Oregon, Pennsylvania, and Texas. Many of these proposals have not made it into law, with motions having failed, stalled or otherwise died, for example at committee review stages.[1][2]

National legislation for amendment of the Controlled Substances Act to place salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum in Schedule I at the federal level was proposed in 2002 by Representative Joe Baca (D- California). Those opposed to bill HR 5607 include Daniel Siebert, who sent a letter to Congress arguing against the proposed legislation,[6] and the Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics (CCLE), who sent key members of the US Congress a report on Salvia divinorum and its active principle,[7] along with letters from an array of scientists who expressed concern that scheduling Salvia divinorum would negatively impact important research on the plant. The bill did not pass.[8][9][10]

Similar to the international situation, in the United States, where individual state legislation does exist, it varies from state to state in its prohibitive degree. Some states such as Delaware, Louisiana and Missouri have imposed the strictest Schedule I classification. By contrast, the state of Maine has passed laws imposing age restrictions, prohibiting use and sale to youngsters under 18 years of age - in a manner generally consistent with controls existing for tobacco and alcohol.[11]

In Oklahoma wording of their bill refers to Salvia divinorum that - "has been enhanced, concentrated or chemically or physically altered" - and as such it is targeted particularly at enhanced strength extracts. It does not outlaw the plant itself.[12] Tennessee also has some provision for Salvia divinorum in its natural plant form. - There the law classes its use as a 'Class A misdemeanour', but it is not an offence to possess, plant, cultivate, grow, or harvest Salvia divinorum for "aesthetic, landscaping, or decorative purposes".[13]

In contrast to Oklahoma the wording of Salvia laws in some states is the other way around, in that there is no mention of Salvia divinorums's active constituent at all. In Delaware for example the plant in its natural form is classified as 'Schedule I', while much more potent purely extracted salvinorin A remains quite legal.[14]

In Illinois their legislation wording does not mention salvinorin A either, but there it includes instead "the seeds thereof, any extract from any part of that plant, and every compound, [...] derivative, mixture, or preparation of that plant".[15] Daniel Siebert has criticised this wording as being "absurdly broad in scope, for it implies that any substance extracted from Salvia divinorum (water, chlorophyll, whatever) would be treated as a Schedule I controlled substance under the proposed law."[1]

Salvia legislation may prove difficult to police. The plant has a nondescript appearance; unlike cannabis the leaves are not distinctive and it does not have a distinctive odour. Salvia divinorum looks like and can be grown as an ordinary houseplant without the need of special equipment such as hydroponics or high-power lights.[16][17]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Opinions and arguments

Concerns expressed by some politicians on the subject of Salvia echo those of the media. In November 2006, the morning after a story by news channel KSL was aired in Utah, warning its viewers about what it called "this dangerous herb",[18] Representative Paul Ray (R) submitted a bill calling for its Schedule I classification in that state. KSL TV cameras were on Capitol Hill to see the paperwork filed, with KSL reporting - "Moments after our story ended, Utah Representative Paul Ray began writing a bill to ban Salvia." As he presented the bill Ray said - "It was upsetting to see we have a drug of that strength that's legal." and "We're basically going to make it illegal to possess or sell. Period."[19] Ray's action was further supported by the news channel in a subsequent KSL editorial. Viewer feedback was unanimously more critical.[20]

Senator John Bulloch (R) reportedly saw a report on an Atlanta television news station about the increased use of Salvia divinorum. He was quoted as saying - "I thought, 'Why hasn't somebody already jumped on this?" before filing Senate Bill 295. "I hurriedly got legislative counsel to draft the bill...Everything that I read about it is it's considered to be a hallucinogenic drug...A lot of the reading that I've found on it says that it gives a quicker and more intense high than LSD." Senator Don Thomas (R) was reported as saying -"I just know about the publicity of the dangers of it, and the use of it, so my first impression is to ban anything of that nature."[21]

In February 2007, the day after a Fox TV local news story on Salvia had aired in Milwaukee,[22] Wisconsin state lawmaker Sheldon Wasserman, who had never heard of it before, spoke to Fox news in a follow-up report about then wanting to make it a Schedule I controlled substance.[23]

Comparisons to LSD and particular focus on "protecting our children" are also be echoed by politicians. In June 2007 the Wisconsin State Journal newspaper ran a front page headline cover story about Salvia, reporting that Representative Wasserman had recently begun seeking sponsors for a bill that would ban the manufacture and sale of Salvia divinorum for consumption in Wisconsin. Wasserman was reported as saying - "This bill is all about protecting our children" and "I want to stop the Salvia divinorum dealers who are pushing young people to experiment with a potentially dangerous substance."[24]

In connection with his proposals to make Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A Schedule I controlled substances in Oregon, Representative John Lim was quoted as saying - "From what I understand this drug is at least as dangerous as marijuana or LSD", and Seth Hatmaker, a spokesman for Lim - "I think it's only a matter of time before we find people addicted to this stuff".[25]

In the state of Illinois, in support of his bill for Schedule I classification of Salvia divinorum, Representative Dennis Reboletti (R) wrote in his own website that Salvia is a "powerful psychoactive plant which in appearance looks like marijuana but has the psychoactive properties of LSD." and "It's important that we in the legislature are proactive in protecting our children from highly addictive substances" [...] "For a drug to be classified as a Schedule 1 substance signifies that it's a highly dangerous and potentially lethal drug for its user. Hopefully, the passage of my bill will bring attention to "Magic Mint" and help law enforcement combat the future rise of this drug."[26]

Other references and sources indicate however that Salvia divinorum does not look like marijuana. Its psychoactive properties are not like those of LSD, and that Salvia divinorum is not generally understood to be either addictive or toxic.

Concerns about driving while under the influence of Salvia have also been expressed. Senator Karen Peterson, who introduced Schedule I classification of Salvia divinorum in Delaware, said - "I, for one, don't want to be driving down Route 1 next to someone who is having an out-of-body experience"[27] and "I thought this is not something that I would want people using driving around the streets of Delaware."[28]

There has not been much evidence to suggest that Salvia use is particularly problematic. Some arguments against Salvia have been of a preventative or imitative nature. North Dakota Senator Randy Christmann (R) stated - "we need to stop this before it gets to be a huge problem not after it gets to be a huge problem"[29] and New Jersey Assemblyman Jack Conners (D) argued -"Salvia divinorum use may not be a runway epidemic, but it's certainly is a phenomenon that warrants attention. We should take preventive steps now to prevent wholesale problems later on"[30] In October 2005 MP John Mann raised an ultimately unsuccessful Early Day Motion calling for Salvia divinorum to be banned in the UK, saying - "The Australians have clearly found a problem with it. There's obviously a risk in people taking it."[3]

The National Institute on Money in State Politics indicates the major sources of campaign contributions for US politicians. For example, Representative John Lim's largest individual campaign sponsor in 2006 was the Oregon Beer & Wine Distributors Association. Lim argued for Schedule I classification of Salvia in Oregon. Senator Karen Peterson's second largest group campaign donations in 2006 came from 'Beer, Wine & Liquor' industries. Peterson introduced Schedule I classification of Salvia divinorum in Delaware. Senator Tim Burchett sponsored Salvia legislation in Tennessee. In 2006 his second largest individual campaign donation came from the Tennessee Malt Beverage Association. In the same period alcohol and tobacco related contributions amounted to the fourth largest industry contributions for Representative Paul Ray in Utah. Alcohol related contributions also featured highly for Representative Dennis Reboletti in Illinois - 'Beer, Wine & Liquor' was his seventh highest industry contributor.[31]

Opponents of more prohibitive measures against Salvia argue that such reactions are largely due to an inherent prejudice and a particular cultural bias rather than any actual balance of evidence, pointing out inconsistencies in attitudes toward other more toxic and addictive drugs such as alcohol and nicotine.[32] The worldwide number of alcohol related deaths is calculated at over 2,000 people per day,[33] in the US the number is over 300 deaths per day.[34] While not objecting to some form of legal control, in particular with regard to the sale to minors or sale of enhanced high-strength extracts, most Salvia proponents otherwise argue against stricter legislation.[1]

Those advocating consideration of Salvia divinorum's potential for beneficial use in a modern context argue that more could be learned from Mazatec culture, where Salvia is not really associated with notions of drug taking at all and it is rather considered as a spiritual sacrament. In light of this it is argued that Salvia divinorum could be better understood more positively as an entheogen rather than pejoratively as a hallucinogen.[35] Other entheogenic plants with continuing traditions principally of spiritual use include peyote (and other psychoactive cacti), iboga, virola, ayahuasca (an admixture of plants containing DMT + MAOI), and various types of psychoactive fungi.[36] In fact, US legislation as it stands specifically allows two of these to be used in a spiritual context. The Native American Church is allowed to use peyote and Uniao do Vegetal (or UDV) is permitted ayahuasca.[37] Although not consistently granted (varying from state to state), the principal grounds for such concessions are constitutional,[38] with further grounds following from the Religious Freedom Restoration Act.

Australia

As of 1 June 2002, Australia became the first country to ban Salvia and salvinorin. According to the Australian Drugs and Poisons Committee, salvia had not yet shown evidence of damage or threat to public health/safety but had potential to be abused. In a statement which has been criticized as self-negating the committee said, "there was no evidence of traditional therapeutic use other than in shamanistic healing rituals".[39][40]

Denmark

With effect from 23 August 2003, Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A were classed as 'category B' drugs in Danish law. Category B includes psilocybin mushrooms, cocaine, amphetamine, and several others substances that are only legal for medicinal and scientific purposes. Possession carries a penalty of up to 2 years in prison.[1]

Finland

Finland passed legislation in August 2002 making it illegal to import Salvia divinorum without a prescription from a doctor.[1]

New Zealand

In November 2007 New Zealand National party MP Jacqui Dean called for the government to take action, saying - "Salvia Divinorum is a hallucinogenic drug, which has been banned in Australia, and yet here in New Zealand it continues to be sold freely." and "We’re dealing with a dangerous drug here, with the minister's wait and see approach like playing Russian Roulette with young people's lives."[41]

Jacqui Dean has similar concerns about the 'party pill' BZP (Benzylpiperazine), over which Associate Health Minister Jim Anderton (Progressive party) has accused her of indulging in political grandstanding, saying - "Perhaps Mrs Dean doesn't subscribe to the idea that any Government must balance the need to act promptly with its responsibilities to act fairly and follow due process, particularly where its actions affect those who are currently acting within existing legal constraints."[42]

When questioned by Maori Party MP Tariana Turia, on why she was unwilling to take the same prohibitory line on smoking cigarettes and drinking alcohol as she took on BZP. Ms Dean said - "Alcohol and tobacco have been with our society for many, many years."[43]

In September 2007, the Social Tonics Association of New Zealand (STANZ) called for Jacqui Dean to step down from speaking on drug issues after she demonstrated - "a lack of credibility in calling for the ban of dihydrogen monoxide (water.)" STANZ Chairman Matt Bowden said - "The DHMO hoax played on the member this week is not a joke, it highlights a serious issue at the heart of drug policy making. Ms Dean demonstrated a ‘ban anything moderately harmful’ reflex. This approach is just downright dangerous." - "Jacqui Dean has clearly demonstrated a lack of credibility in her requests to the Minister to consider banning water; She has also seriously embarrassed her National Party colleagues who can no longer have confidence in her petitions to ban BZP or anything else."[44]

Sweden

Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A were added to Sweden's list of controlled substances with effect from 1 April 2006.[1]

Spain

The sale of Salvia divinorum has been illegal since February 6, 2004. The law only prohibits commerce. It does not make possession or use a crime.[45]

Italy

In August 2004, the Italian government decreed salvinorin A "a substance with hallucinogenic properties that may cause conditions of abuse and can manifest latent psychiatric pathologies like acute psychosis and depressive psychosis even in an irreversible way" and put it and the plant Salvia divinorum on their ‘table I’ of outlawed psychotropic substances in March 2005. The Italian government referred to an evaluation of Salvia made by the Italian National Health Institute, assessing it as "a powerful natural hallucinogen" to justify their decision. The Italian Ministry of Heath Decree (in Italian) (Google translated into English). Cultivation of the plant or the possession of more than 0,5 mg of Salvinorin A carries a penalty from 6 to 20 years in prison.

Canada

There has been media interest drawing attention to Salvia divinorum's availability in Canada, but there are currently no plans to regulate the herb.

United Kingdom

In September 2001, in answer to a parliamentary question from Ann Widdecombe MP, asking the Secretary of State for the Home Office "what plans he has to review the legal status of the hallucinogen Salvia divinorum", Bob Ainsworth, a parliamentary Under-Secretary for the UK Home Office, stated that "The Government are not aware of any evidence of significant misuse of this plant and have no current plans to review its legal status".[46]

Following a local newspaper story in October 2005,[3] Bassetlaw MP John Mann raised an Early Day Motion calling for Salvia divinorum to be banned in the UK[47] (EDM796).[4] The motion only received 11 signatures. It has not been debated or further escalated.

United States

In late 2002 Rep. Joe Baca (D- California) introduced a bill (Congress bill HR 5607) to schedule Salvia as a controlled substance at the national level. Those opposed to Joe Baca's bill include Daniel Siebert, who sent a letter to Congress arguing against the proposed legislation,[6] and the Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics (CCLE), who sent key members of the US Congress a report on Salvia divinorum and its active principle,[7] along with letters from an array of scientists who expressed concern that scheduling Salvia divinorum would negatively impact important research on the plant. Baca's bill did not pass.

Despite this a number of states have proposed their own legislation. Louisiana, Missouri, Tennessee, Oklahoma, Delaware, Illinois and North Dakota have so far passed laws prohibiting Salvia divinorum. Louisiana has provisions that allow possession of the plant when it is not intended for human consumption and in Oklahoma natural strength Salvia divinorum is legal—only extract-enhanced leaves are prohibited. Maine has passed a bill to prohibit sale to minors only, effectively approving its use for adults. Salvia divinorum remains legal in all other states. However, though some bills have died during session, the situation is subject to further change depending on the outcome of more recent bills as yet still at the proposal stage.

The DEA has indicated on its website that it is aware of Salvia divinorum and is evaluating the plant for possible scheduling. Daniel Siebert claims he was informed on July 20, 2007 that the DEA had initiated an Eight Factor Analysis of Salvia divinorum. The Controlled Substances Act requires that this analysis be performed before a substance can be scheduled as a controlled substance. The eight factors considered are:

  • Actual and potential for abuse
  • Pharmacology
  • Other current scientific knowledge
  • History and current pattern of abuse
  • Scope, duration, and significance of abuse
  • Public health risk
  • Psychic or physiological dependence liability
  • If an immediate precursor of a controlled substance

Based on the results of the analysis, the DEA may recommend that Salvia divinorum be scheduled as a controlled substance. This analysis will probably take several months to be completed. Siebert said "Given that there is no compelling evidence to suggest that Salvia divinorum presents a significant risk to public safety, I am hopeful that the DEA will be reasonable and not criminalize this beneficial plant unnecessarily. If they do decide to criminalize it, it will take a minimum of 30 days after they give public notice of their intentions in the Federal Register before the change of legal status takes effect."[1]

State summary

This table summarizes the status of various state proposals for Salvia legislation, with links to following detail state by state.

State Bill ref. Proposed date Classification Status Proposer Salvinorin A included? Notes
Alabama SB330 27-Mar-2007 Schedule I not passed / died Sen. Hank Erwin Yes
T.B.A. 18-Oct-2007 proposed Sen. Roger Bedford & Rep. Johnny Mack Morrow  ?
Alaska SB313 05-Apr-2006 Schedule IIA not passed / died Sen. Gene Therriault No
SB38 16-Jan-2007 proposed Yes
California AB259 05-Feb-2007 Schedule I failed passage in committee (reconsideration granted - Hearing: 15-Jan-2008) Assembly Member Anthony Adams No, then Yes proposed bill wording amended 12-Mar-2007 to include salvinorin A
Delaware SB259 16-Mar-2006 Schedule I Passed - 02-May-2006 Sen. Karen Peterson No aka Brett's Law
Georgia SB295 8-Mar-2007 'misdemeanor' proposed House - passed Senate (moved to House Judiciary Non-Civil committee; may be discussed again in 2008 session) Sen. John Bulloch Yes n/a possession, cultivation, harvesting ... for aesthetic, landscaping, or decorative purposes. Also exempts research at Georgia universities and use of Salvinorin A as a legal homeopathic.
Illinois SB2589 19-Jan-2006 Schedule I not passed / sine die Sen. John J. Millner No
HB457 26-Jan-2007 Passed - 18-Aug-2007 Rep. Dennis M. Reboletti No Salvinorin A not mentioned, but bill wording incl. "any extract" from plant. Takes effect January 1, 2008
Iowa HSB133 SSB1051 18-Jan-2007 Schedule I proposed Governor's Office of Drug Control Policy Yes
Louisiana HB20 25-Feb-2005 Schedule I Passed - 15-Aug-2005 Rep. Michael G. Strain No First State to ban Sd.
Maine LD66 Dec-2006 prohibit sale to minors Passed - 15-May-2007 Rep. Chris Barstow No, then Yes Amended - originally proposed 'Schedule Z' classification
Missouri HB165 05-Jan-2005 Schedule I not passed / died Rep. Rachel L. Bringer No
HB633 23-Feb-2005 Passed - 28-Aug-2005 Rep Scott A. Lipke
and Rep. Rachel L. Bringer
Yes
New Jersey AB3139 06-Apr-2006 Schedule I proposed Assemblywoman Linda Stender Yes
SB1867 15-May-2006 Schedule I proposed Sen. Stephen Sweeney Yes
New York S695 18-Apr-2005 prohibit sale being considered by the State Assembly Sen. John J. Flanagan No fine of no more than $500 per violation
A8920 5-Jun-2007 prohibit possession proposed Assemblyman Carl Heastie No fine of no more than $50 per violation
North Dakota SB2317 15-Jan-2007 Schedule I Passed - 01-Aug-2007 Sen. Dave Oehlke, Sen. Randell Christmann et al. No, then Yes bill refers to salvinorin A and "any of the active ingredients" of Salvia divinorum
Ohio HB215 May-2007 Schedule I proposed Rep. Thom Collier No
Oklahoma HB2485 06-Mar-2006 prohibit extracts Passed - 26-May-2006 Rep. John Nance Yes enhanced, concentrated, and chemically or physically altered
Oregon SB592 22-Feb-2003 Schedule I not passed / died
HB3485 15-Mar-2003 not passed / died
HB2494 25-Jan-2007 not passed / died Rep. John Lim Yes
Pennsylvania HB2657 02-May-2006 Schedule I not passed / died Rep. James Casorio et al. Yes
SB1217 16-Jun-2006 not passed / died Sen. Lisa Boscola et al. No
Tennessee HB2909 /SB3247
/TCA 39-17-452
15-Feb-2006 Class A misdemeanor Passed - 01-Jul-2006 Rep. Park M. Strader, Sen. Tim Burchett Yes not an offense to possess, plant, cultivate, grow, or

harvest Sd for aesthetic, landscaping, or decorative purposes

Texas HB2347 02-Mar-2007 Penalty Group 2 proposed Rep. Charles "Doc" Anderson Yes Penalty Group 2 of the Texas Controlled Substances Act
SB1796 09-Mar-2007 prohibit sale to minors proposed Sen. Craig Estes No proposed concurrently to HB2347 above
Utah HB190 18-Jan-2007 Schedule I not passed / died Rep. Paul Ray No, then Yes
Virginia HB2844 10-Jan-2007 Schedule I not passed / died Delegate John M. O'Bannon, III only Any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of Salvinorin A (another name: Divinorin A). - The plant Salvia divinorum is not mentioned
Wisconsin AB477 07-Aug-2007 fine not to exceed $10,000 proposed Rep. Sheldon Wasserman et al. only prohibits manufacturing, distributing, or delivering salvinorin A with the intent that it be consumed by a person
Wyoming HB49 13-Feb-2006 Schedule I not passed / died Rep. Stephen Watt No

Alabama

On March 29, 2007 Senator Hank Erwin (R) proposed Senate Bill 330, which would have made Salvia divinorum a Schedule I substance in Alabama. The bill died in Senate Judiciary Committee.[48]

On October 18, 2007 State Senator Roger Bedford (D-Russellville), and Representative Johnny Mack Morrow (D-Red Bay) were reported as saying that they are going to propose legislation again that would make Salvia a Schedule I drug, in Alabama.

Morrow said - "Drug dealers throughout America are always trying to come up with new methods of selling our children drugs," [...] "This legislation is all about protecting our children."

Bedford said - "We want to see the law catch up with these designer drugs".

Franklin County District Attorney Joey Rushing said that he hopes Alabama can step up as a leader in fighting to control it before it becomes a major problem - "It's cheap, it's easy to buy and it's dangerous," [...] "Those are combinations that we need to stop before it's too late" he said.[49]

Alaska

On April 5, 2006 Senator Gene P. Therriault (R) proposed adding Salvia divinorum to Alaska's list of Schedule IIA controlled substances. The bill died in committee. On January 16, 2007, he proposed another bill (Senate Bill 38).[50] The bill has not yet come up for vote.

California

On February 5, 2007 Assembly Member Anthony Adams (R) proposed Assembly Bill 259.[51] The bill wording was amended on March 12, 2007 to include salvinorin A. The bill proposed adding Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A to Califorina's list of Schedule I controlled substances.

The bill was referred to the Committee on Public Safety with a due date for public hearing on March 27, 2007. [1] The bill analysis [2] indicated that opposition to the bill was registered by, among others, Daniel Siebert and the Drug Policy Alliance. The bill was defeated in Committee by a 3-2 vote. A reconsideration was granted and the second hearing is on January 15, 2008.[51]

Delaware

On January 23, 2006 Delaware teenager Brett Chidester took his own life by climbing into a tent with a charcoal grill where he died of carbon monoxide poisoning [3]. In an essay found after his death, he wrote "Salvia allows us to give up our senses and wander in the interdimensional time and space…Also, and this is probably hard for most to accept, our existence in general is pointless. Final point: Us earthly humans are nothing."[52] Although being written earlier, Brett's notes have subsequently been presented in media reports as if they were part of his suicide note. Brett's suicide note did not mention Salvia. There are arguably more relevant factors, with the extent and significance of Brett's use of alcohol being a matter of contention [4], and with it being reported that Brett had been suffering from depression. Given the details of Brett's suicide, in particular its premeditated nature and slow method, it is unlikely that he was immediately under Salvia divinorum's influence at the time of his death. There have been no other reported cases of Salvia related suicides anywhere else in the world. Also, Brett had told his parents that he had actually ceased his experimentation with the plant.

Despite the doubts that have been expressed about the lack of evidence against Salvia in this case [5], Senator Karen Peterson sponsored Senate Bill 259, "Brett's Law", which passed as state legislation classifying Salvia divinorum as a Schedule I controlled substance.

Senator Karen Peterson and Brett's parents Kathy and Dennis Chidester have subsequently continued to campaign for and support Schedule I legislation beyond their home state of Delaware. [6]

Georgia

On March 8, 2007 Senator John Bulloch, (R-Ochlocknee), filed Senate Bill SB295 which proposes that "It shall be unlawful to knowingly produce, manufacture, distribute, possess, or possess with intent to produce, manufacture, or distribute the active chemical ingredient in the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum A" (sic). [7]

Violation of the proposed law would be considered a misdemeanour under Georgia's code. It would not apply to "the possession, planting, cultivation, growing, or harvesting of such hallucinogenic plant strictly for aesthetic, landscaping, or decorative purposes".

Sen. John Bulloch reportedly saw a report on an Atlanta television news station about the increased use of Salvia divinorum. He was quoted as saying - "I thought, 'Why hasn't somebody already jumped on this?'" before filing Senate Bill 295. "I hurriedly got legislative counsel to draft the bill…Everything that I read about it is it's considered to be a hallucinogenic drug…A lot of the reading that I've found on it says that it gives a quicker and more intense high than LSD." [8]. Senator Don Thomas (R-Dalton), a physician and member of the reviewing Senate Health and Human Services Committee, was reported as saying—"I just know about the publicity of the dangers of it, and the use of it, so my first impression is to ban anything of that nature". [9]

Illinois

On January 19, 2006 Senator John J. Millner (R) introduced Senate Bill 2589 to the Illinois State Legislature. This bill sought to add Salvia divinorum to that state's list of Schedule I controlled substances. The Bill failed to pass as the session ended sine die (adjourned with no date set for resumption).

On January 26, 2007 Representative Dennis M. Reboletti (R) filed House Bill HB457[53] which proposed Schedule I classification for Salvia divinorum (including "the seeds thereof, any extract from any part of that plant, and every compound, [...] derivative, mixture, or preparation of that plant"). The bill does not mention the active chemical constituent salvinorin A.[15] Daniel Siebert criticised this wording as being "absurdly broad in scope, for it implies that any substance extracted from Salvia divinorum (water, chlorophyll, whatever) would be treated as a Schedule I controlled substance under the proposed law."[1]

In March 2007 news of the bill's passage on Reboletti's website alleged that Salvia is a "powerful psychoactive plant which in appearance looks like marijuana but has the psychoactive properties of LSD". Reboletti said, "It's important that we in the legislature are proactive in protecting our children from highly addictive substances" and "For a drug to be classified as a Schedule 1 substance signifies that it's a highly dangerous and potentially lethal drug for its user. Hopefully, the passage of my bill will bring attention to "Magic Mint" and help law enforcement combat the future rise of this drug."[26] Salvia divinorum article references and other sources indicate however that Salvia does not look like marijuana. Its psychoactive properties are not like those of LSD, and that Salvia divinorum is not generally understood to be either addictive or toxic.

By May 22, 2007, HB0457 had received support from all 173 members in both bodies of the democratic majority Illinois General Assembly. It was sent to the Governor of Illinois, Rod Blagojevich (D), on June 20, 2007 and was signed into law on Friday August 17, 2007.[53] The law came into effect on January 1, 2008.[54]

In a statement given prior to the bill coming into effect Reboletti said, "I've seen the argument to legalize marijuana. It is a gateway drug, like salvia could be a gateway drug,"[55] and "We decided to move forward rather than waiting for someone to be killed because of it."[56]

A critical editorial was published by the Chicago Sun-Times on the eve of Reboletti's law coming into effect. It commented - "Legislators must have been on something to zero in on this obscure organic substance ... The last time we checked, Illinois was not besieged by a salvia epidemic. We don't see the urgency in criminalizing a substance with no clear track record of causing people to act in a dangerous manner or hurt other people ... considering how overcrowded our prisons are with dangerous criminals, trolling around for more nonviolent drug offenders to punish is counterintuitive... Regulating use of, rather than banning salvia, would have been a more sober approach."[55]

Alcohol related financial contributions featured highly for Representative Dennis Reboletti's 2006 political campaign. According to the National Institute on Money in State Politics, 'Beer, Wine & Liquor' was his seventh highest industry contributor.[31]

Indiana

A few days after a local TV news report aired in November 2007, a follow-up story reported that Representative Dennis Avery (D-Evansville) was interested in a possible ban. Representative Avery was quoted as saying - "I had never heard of this product until a very short time ago when 14 News brought it to my attention."

The news report went on to say - "Several local drug prevention organizations and area law enforcement tell 14 News there hasn't been any indication salvia is a problem substance."[57]

An online poll was conducted in connection with Indianapolis news channel's stories also in November 2007, asking the question - "Do you believe Indiana should regulate Salvia divinorum?"[58]

Iowa

On January 18, 2007 the Governor’s Office of Drug Control Policy proposed House/Senate Study Bills HSB133 and SSB1051. These bills propose classification of Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A as Schedule I controlled substances.

Louisiana

Effective from August 8, 2005 (signed into law on June 28, 2005) Louisiana Act No 159 made 40 plants, including Salvia divinorum, illegal if sold for human consumption. It is still legal to own the plants. Simple possession of an illegal form of Salvia is a felony for which the maximum sentence is 5 years; production (even for personal use) or distribution (even for free) has a maximum sentence of 10 years and a minimum sentence of 2 years. In addition, the defendant can even be sentenced to hard labor for either offense.

Maine

In December 2006 Rep. Chris Barstow proposed legislation for the State of Maine. According to reports Barstow believes Salvia "is a drug very similar to LSD" and "We need to have it banned as soon as possible" [10]. Barstow's initial bill proposed that Salvia divinorum be broadly classed the same as marijuana (classified as 'Schedule Z' in Maine). Under the proposed bill possession of Salvia divinorum is a 'Class E' crime , and trafficking or furnishing of Salvia divinorum is a 'Class D' crime.

Barstow's action followed an approach from Kimberly A. Johnson, director of the Maine Office of Substance Abuse [11], after she had seen Salvia divinorum on sale in her home town of Gorham. Johnson indicated that she would not be satisfied with only the enforcement of age restrictions to control Salvia, asserting—"This drug is just as dangerous to someone who's 30 as someone who's 17". [12]

Lawmakers on the Criminal Justice Committee amended the proposed bill on February 6, 2007. The amendment proposed regulating Salvia only for minors, so that selling or providing Salvia divinorum to anyone under the age of 18 would be a criminal offense. Possession by a minor would be a civil violation, punishable by a fine and community service. Adults 18 and over could continue to legally purchase and use the herb.

According to news reports [13], several committee members at the work session questioned the need to criminalize a drug that hadn't been causing a problem and apparently has little or no addictive potential.

The amended measure was signed by the governor on May 15, 2007. Its was "Passed to be enacted" (last Senate action) on September 5, 2007.[59]

Missouri

On January 5, 2005, Representative Rachel L. Bringer introduced House Bill 165 to the Missouri State legislature. This bill sought to add Salvia divinorum to that state's list of Schedule I controlled substances. Despite the CCLE sending a letter to Representative Bringer advising of its earlier report to Congress[7], the following month saw the introduction of House Bill 633, which sought to place Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A in Schedule I and also proposed to add 12 other substances to Missouri's list of controlled substances. This second bill was introduced on February 23, 2005 by Representative Scott A. Lipke (R) and Representative Bringer. On August 28, 2005 the bill was incorporated into section 195.017 of the state's drug regulation statutes. Thus, Salvia divinorum became a Schedule I substance in the state of Missouri. Possession is a Class C felony under MRS 195.202, which allows a maximum sentence of 7 years.

New Jersey

On April 6, 2006 Assemblywoman Linda Stender (D) announced that she was proposing legislation to ban Salvia divinorum. On May 15, 2006 Senator Stephen Sweeney (D) proposed Senate Bill 1867 to the State Senate. Assemblywoman Stender introduced an identical bill to the State Assembly on May 22, 2006. It is designated Assembly Bill 3139 and is cosponsored by Assemblyman Jack Conners (D) and Assemblyman Herb Conaway (D). If passed, these bills would classify Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A as Schedule I controlled substances in New Jersey. Neither bill has come up for a vote.

New York

New York is considering a bill (S04987) proposed by Senator John J. Flanagan (R) that would place heavy civil penalties on the sale of the plant.

North Dakota

On January 15, 2007 Senators Dave Oehlke (R) and Randel Christmann (R), together with Representative Brenda Heller (R) proposed Senate Bill 2317 to classify Salvia divinorum as Schedule I controlled substance.

The original text of the bill only mentioned Salvia divinorum. The Senate Judiciary Committee amended this on April 5, 2007, changing the bill wording to include salvinorin A and "any of the active ingredients" of Salvia divinorum. Daniel Siebert has questioned this vauge wording - "since it could be interpreted to include many commonly occurring pharmacologically active compounds, such as tannins, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid, etc". The amended bill passed in the Senate on February 7, 2007 (ayes: 47, nays: 0). It passed in the House on March 16, 2007 (ayes: 83, nays: 6). It was signed into law by Governor John Hoeven (R) on April 26, 2007. The new law went into effect on August 1, 2007.[1]

Ohio

In May 2007 Representative Thom Collier (R) proposed House Bill 215 seeking to make Salvia divinorum a Schedule I drug in the state of Ohio. [14]

Oklahoma

Representative's John Nance (R) bill HB 2485 was passed into law in the State of Oklahoma on the May 26, 2006. The wording of the bill—"salvia divinorum [that] has been enhanced, concentrated or chemically or physically altered"[15]—means that its particular focus is on high-strength extracts, rather than untreated natural strength Salvia divinorum leaf or plants.

Oregon

During the year 2003 two bills were proposed to criminalize Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A. Both bills died upon adjournment of the Oregon Judiciary Committee. House Bill 3485 (introduced March 15, 2003) sought to impose particularly severe penalties. If it had passed, possession would have been punishable by a maximum of 10 years imprisonment, a $200,000 fine, or both. Delivery would have been punishable by a maximum of 20 years imprisonment, a $300,000 fine, or both. Senate Bill 592 only proposed to make delivery a crime. If it had passed, delivery would have been punishable by a maximum of one year's imprisonment, a $5,000 fine, or both.

Efforts to ban Salvia divinorum were renewed on January 25, 2007. Representative John Lim (R) introduced House Bill 2494 to the Oregon State Legislature.[60] If passed, this legislation would have made Salvia divinorum and salvinorin A Schedule I controlled substances in that state. Possession would be punishable by a maximum of 1 year's imprisonment, a $6250 fine, or both. Manufacture or delivery would be punishable by a maximum of 20 years imprisonment, a $375,000 fine, or both.

Rep. John Lim has been quoted as saying—"From what I understand this drug is at least as dangerous as marijuana or LSD", and Seth Hatmaker, a spokesman for Lim—"I think it's only a matter of time before we find people addicted to this stuff".[25] There is little or no research evidence to support these views. In fact, the scientific consensus is mostly to the contrary. Salvia divinorum is not generally understood to be addictive.

House Bill 2494 died in committee upon adjournment on June 28, 2007.[60]

Tennessee

Tennessee has passed a law (HB2909/SB3247/TCA 39-17-452) that makes knowingly possessing, producing, manufacturing, distributing, or possessing with intent to produce, manufacture, or distribute the active chemical ingredient in the hallucinogenic plant Salvia divinorum a Class A misdemeanor. The law was to originally make it a felony, but it was amended. The Senate Bill was sponsored by Senator Tim Burchett (email) (R-Knoxville). It was signed into law on May 19, 2006 and went into effect on July 1, 2006. Tim Burchett stated, "We have enough problems with illegal drugs as it is without people promoting getting high from some glorified weed that's been brought up from Mexico. The only people I’ve heard from who are opposed to making it illegal are those who are getting stoned on it." [16]

Texas

On March 3, 2007 Representative Charles "Doc" Anderson (R-Waco) filed House Bill 2347 which proposes the addition of salvinorin A and Salvia divinorum to Penalty Group 2 of the Texas Controlled Substances Act. On March 28, 2007 the Committee on Criminal Jurisprudence held a video recorded public hearing, 56 minutes 30 seconds into which HB2347 was raised.

Concurrently to Representative Anderson's proposed House bill, Senator Craig Estes (R) filed Senate Bill 1796 on March 9, 2007. In contrast to the more restrictive House bill, the Senate bill simply proposes an age restriction—prohibiting the sale of Salvia divinorum to persons younger than 18 years of age.

Utah

KSL's Utah news channel broadcast a story on November 27, 2006 warning its viewers about what it called "this dangerous herb".[18] The next day, on November 28, 2006, the same channel reported House Representative Paul Ray's "immediate response" with proposed legislation to ban Salvia divinorum in the State of Utah, quoting him as saying - "It was upsetting to see we have a drug of that strength that's legal." and "We're basically going to make it illegal to possess or sell. Period."[19] Ray's bill (HB190) proposed Schedule I classification.

On December 12, 2006, KSL editorial director Duane Cardall published a stance against Salvia divinorum on behalf of the news station as a whole. Cardall's piece closes: "In KSL's view, the legislature should take action to control the sale of Salvia Divinorum before the illicit use of the accessible hallucinogen spreads. That wasn't done in a timely way with Meth, and now we have a devastating epidemic. Preemptive action now with 'Sally D' would likely spare countless families the horror of losing a loved one to the relentless tentacles of drug abuse."[20]

KSL news stories and editorials generally support on-line comments from its registered readers. In this case feedback was overwhelmingly in disagreement with the editorial line.

The House Representatives voted unanimously in favour of the bill however. On February 22, 2007 the bill status was 'House/ passed 3rd reading' (Yeas - 68, Nays - 0). But the bill did not get enacted during its legislative session and was instead sent to the House file for defeated bills on February 28, 2007.

The bill was scheduled to be re-introduced by Representative Paul Ray in a Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Interim Committee meeting scheduled for September 19, 2007.[61] On October 17, 2007 the Salt Lake Tribune newspaper reported that the proposal had been set aside. Representative Ray said that federal regulators had alerted him that they were close to reaching their own classification for Salvia divinorum.[62]

Virginia

On January 10, 2007 Delegate John M. O'Bannon, III (R) filed house bill HB2844 which proposed that any material, compound, mixture, or preparation, which contains any quantity of salvinorin A be classified as a Schedule I controlled substance. The plant Salvia divinorum was not itself mentioned. The bill failed to pass the initial committee stage.[17] O'Bannon has indicated that he plans to reintroduce the bill.[63] The new bill is HB21.[64]

Wisconsin

On February 15, 2007, the day after a Fox TV local news story on Salvia had aired in Milwaukee,[22] Wisconsin state lawmaker Sheldon Wasserman, who had never heard of it before, spoke to Fox news in a follow-up report about then wanting to make it a Schedule I controlled substance.[23]

On June 18, 2007 the Wisconsin State Journal newspaper ran a front page headline cover story about Salvia, reporting that Representative Wasserman had recently begun seeking sponsors for a bill that would ban the manufacture and sale of Salvia divinorum for consumption in Wisconsin, with a penalty of up to $10,000. Wasserman was reported as saying - "This bill is all about protecting our children" and "I want to stop the Salvia divinorum dealers who are pushing young people to experiment with a potentially dangerous substance."[24]

On August 7, 2007, Representatives Sheldon Wasserman (D), David Cullen (D), John Townsend (R), Mike Sheridan (D), Alvin Ott (R), Jake Hines (R), and Terese Berceau (D) introduced Assembly Bill 477 to the Wisconsin State Legislature. If passed, this bill would prohibit manufacturing, distributing, or delivering the active chemical ingredient in the plant Salvia divinorum (salvinorin A) with the intent that it be consumed by a person.[1]

Wyoming

On February 13, 2006 Representative Stephen Watt (R) proposed adding Salvia divinorum to Wyoming's list of Schedule I controlled substances (House Bill 0049). The bill died without coming up for a vote.

See also

Citations

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Siebert (Legal status).
  2. ^ a b c Erowid (Legal status).
  3. ^ a b c Worksop 2005-10-14 (UK Media).
  4. ^ a b Mann 2005.
  5. ^ DEA 2007.
  6. ^ a b Siebert 2002.
  7. ^ a b c Boire 2002.
  8. ^ Baca 2002.
  9. ^ DEA 2003.
  10. ^ CCLE 2002b.
  11. ^ Haskell 2007-02-08 (US Media).
  12. ^ Nance 2006, section 1, para 38.
  13. ^ Burchett 2006, section 1 (c).
  14. ^ Peterson 2006, section 3.
  15. ^ a b Reboletti 2007 (Jan), full text - p.7.
  16. ^ Shulgin 2003.
  17. ^ Chalmers 2006-05-06 (US Media).
  18. ^ a b Dujanovic 2006-11-27 (US Media).
  19. ^ a b Dujanovic 2006-11-28 (US Media).
  20. ^ a b Cardall 2006-12-12 (US Media).
  21. ^ Eckenrode 2007-03-08 (US Media).
  22. ^ a b Sanchick 2007-02-14 (US Media).
  23. ^ a b Sanchick 2007-02-15 (US Media).
  24. ^ a b Martell 2007-06-18 (US Media).
  25. ^ a b Clark 2007-03-05 (US Media).
  26. ^ a b Reboletti 2007 (Mar).
  27. ^ NBC10 2006-04-11 (US Media).
  28. ^ Smith 2007-09-25 (US Media).
  29. ^ KXMBTV 2007-01-31 (US Media).
  30. ^ Teel 2006.
  31. ^ a b MiSP 2006.
  32. ^ Nutt et al. 2007.
  33. ^ Lopez 2005, Table 2.
  34. ^ NIAAA 2001.
  35. ^ Blosser (Mazatec Lessons).
  36. ^ see peyote, iboga, virola, ayahuasca, etc.
  37. ^ see Native American Church and Uniao do Vegetal.
  38. ^ Madison 1789.
  39. ^ CCLE 2002a.
  40. ^ NDPSC 2001.
  41. ^ New Zealand National Party 2007-11-05 (NZ Media).
  42. ^ Anderton 2007.
  43. ^ Stuff 2007-10-10 (NZ Media).
  44. ^ Social Tonics Association 2007-09-15 (NZ Media).
  45. ^ Spain Govt 2004.
  46. ^ Ainsworth 2001.
  47. ^ Worksop 2005-10-21 (UK Media).
  48. ^ Ehinger 2007-10-22 (US Media).
  49. ^ Willis 2007-10-18 (US Media).
  50. ^ Therriault 2007.
  51. ^ a b Adams 2007.
  52. ^ Chalmers 2006.
  53. ^ a b Reboletti 2007 (Jan).
  54. ^ Colindres 2007-08-18 (US Media).
  55. ^ a b Chicago Sun-Times 2007-12-31 (US Media).
  56. ^ Mitchum 2007-12-25 (US Media).
  57. ^ Lyles 2007-11-22 (US Media).
  58. ^ Wallace 2007-11-26 (US Media).
  59. ^ Barstow 2007.
  60. ^ a b Lim 2007.
  61. ^ Utah State 2007, agenda item 5 (September 19).
  62. ^ Erin 2007-10-17 (US Media).
  63. ^ Robinson 2007-09-27 (US Media).
  64. ^ O'Bannon 2007.

References

  • Adams, Anthony (Feb 2007). An act to amend Section 11054 of the Health and Safety Code, relating to controlled substances.. AB 259 Bill List. The Legislative Counsel of the State California. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  • Ainsworth, Bob (Sep 2001). Written answers - Home Department - Salvia Divinorum. TheyWorkForYou.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  • Anderton, Jim (Apr 2007). Jacqui Dean indulging in political grandstanding. Progressive Party Website. Retrieved on 2007-11-05.
  • Baca, Rep. Joe (Oct 2002). To amend the Controlled Substances Act to place Salvinorin A in Schedule I (H.R.5607). Bills, Resolutions. The Library of Congress (THOMAS). Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • Barstow, Rep. Christopher (Mar 2007). Summary of LD 66. An Act To Ban Salvia Divinorum. State of Maine Legislature. Retrieved on 2007-10-28.
  • Boire, Richard Glen; Russo, Ethan & Fish, Adam Richard et al. (2002), , Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics (CCLE), . Retrieved on 2007-05-12
  • Blosser, Brett. Lessons in The Use of Mazatec Psychoactive Plants. The Salvia divinorum Research and Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-10-19.
  • Burchett, Sen. Tim (2006). Senate Bill No. 3247. Public Acts, 2006, Chapter No. 700. The General Assembly the State of Tennessee. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  • CCLE (2002a). Salvia Divinorum Outlawed in Australia. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
  • CCLE (2002b). HR 5607 Archive. The Entheogens and Drug Policy Project. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • DEA (US Dept. Justice) (Jun 2003). "Information Bulletin: Salvia Divinorum". Microgram Bulletin XXXVI (6). Office of Forensic Sciences Washington, D.C.: U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • DEA (US Dept. Justice) (Aug 2007). Salvia Divinorum and Salvinorin A. Drugs and Chemicals of Concern. Office of Diversion Control - U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA). Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • Erowid. Salvia Legal Status. Erowid. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • Lim, Rep. John (Jan 2007). House Bill 2494. Search for Specific Measure Number. Oregon State Legislature. Retrieved on 2007-10-21.
  • Lopez, Alan D (Apr 2005). "The evolution of the Global Burden of Disease framework for disease, injury and risk factor quantification: developing the evidence base for national, regional and global public health action". Globalization and Health 1 (5). BioMed Central Ltd. doi:10.1186/1744-8603-1-5. PMID 15847690. - Table 2. Global burden of disease and injury attributable to selected risk factors, 1990.
  • Madison, James et al. The Bill of Rights, the First Amendment (with regard to the United States Constitution), approved September 25, 1789, ratified December 15, 1791.
  • Mann, John (MP) (Oct 2005). EDM 796 - Salvia divinorum. Early Day Motion. Parliamentary Information Management Systems (pims). Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  • MiSP (2006). Follow the Money. e.g. Delaware/Peterson, Oregon/Lim, Tennessee/Burchett, Ray/Utah, Illinois/Reboletti. The National Institute on Money in State Politics. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  • Montgomery, Rob; Ott, Jonathon & McKenna, Terence (1994), , , Palenque
  • Nance, Rep. John (2006). House Bill No. 2485. 2nd Session of the 50th Legislature. The State of Oklahoma. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  • NDPSC (Aug 2001). Edited Minutes Of Meeting 32. National Drugs and Poisons Schedule Committee. Retrieved on 2007-12-28.
  • NIAAA (Aug 2001). Number of deaths and age-adjusted death rates per 100,000 population for categories of alcohol-related (A-R) mortality, United States and States, 1979-96.. Database Resources / Statistical Tables. National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA). Retrieved on 2007-10-20.
  • Nutt, David; King, Leslie & Saulsbury, William et al. (Mar 2007), " ", The Lancet 369 (9566): 1047-1053, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4, . Retrieved on 2007-03-23
  • O'Bannon, III, John M. (Nov 2007). HB 21 Salvinorum A; includes as a Schedule I hallucinogenic.. Bill Tracking > HB21. Virginia General Assembly - Legislative Information System. Retrieved on 2007-12-18.
  • Peterson, Sen. Karen (2006). Chapter 256 - Formerly Senate Bill No 259 (aka “Brett's Law”). An Act to Amend Title 16 of the Delaware Code Relating to the Uniform Controlled Substances Act. The General Assembly of the State of Delaware. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  • Reboletti, Rep. Dennis (Jan 2007). Bill Status of HB0457. Cont Sub-Salvia divinorum. Illinois General Assembly. Retrieved on 2007-10-16. - Full Text of HB0457

  • Reboletti, Rep. Dennis (Mar 2007). Reboletti Passes First Bill, Bans "Magic Mint". Illinois State Representative Dennis M. Reboletti (R) 46th District. Archived from the original on 2007-06-08. Retrieved on 2007-06-08.
  • Shulgin, Dr. Alexander (Jun 2003). Ask Dr. Shulgin Online. Salvia Divinorum, Law, & Medicine. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.
  • Siebert, Daniel (2002). A Prominent Salvia Divinorum Researcher Speaks Out: Letter to Congress (RE: Bill H.R. 5607). The Entheogens and Drug Policy Project. Center for Cognitive Liberty & Ethics. Retrieved on 2007-10-16.
  • Siebert, Daniel. The Legal Status of Salvia divinorum. The Salvia divinorum Research and Information Center. Retrieved on 2007-03-04.
  • Spanish Government (06 February,2004), ,
  • Teel. (April 2006) Assemblymen Jack Conners and Herb Conaway. Retrieved from PoliticsNJ.com on July 21, 2007.
  • Therriault, Sen. Gene (Jan 2007). An Act relating to scheduling Salvia divinorum and Salvinorin A as controlled substances.. Bill History/Action for 25th Legislature. The Alaska State Legislature. Retrieved on 2007-12-29.
  • Utah State (Sep 2007). Meeting Schedule. Law Enforcement and Criminal Justice Interim Committee. Utah State Legislature. Retrieved on 2007-10-14.

News references

UK

  • Vince, Gaia. "Mind-altering drugs: does legal mean safe?", New Scientist, 2006-09-29. 
  • "MP's Early Day Motion on Salvia", Worksop Today, 2005-10-21. 
  • "Legal, but this is no party drug says net", Worksop Today, 2005-10-14. 
  • Nathan, Adam. "Drug suppliers use loophole to sell 'magic mint'", The Sunday Times, 2001-07-15. 

New Zealand

  • New Zealand National Party (Press Release). "Govt Sits Back On Salvia Divinorum Sales", Scoop >> Parliament, 2007-11-05. 
  • Stuff (NZPA). "MP slams BZP as gateway drug, cause of psychosis", Stuff National News Story (Fairfax New Zealand), 2007-10-10. 
  • Social Tonics Association (Press Release). "Water banning reflex no joke", Scoop - Politics, 2007-09-15. Retrieved on 2007-11-05. 

Canada

  • Furminger, Greg. "'Sally D' needs to disappear: council; Welland supports Port Colborne resolution", Welland Tribune, 2007-06-20. 
  • Tayti, Mark. "Council moves to ban mind-altering substance from store shelves", Welland Tribune, 2007-04-11. 
  • Wallace, Kenyon. "Health Canada can't control psychedelic herb", Canadian Press, 2007-04-07. 
  • Hutton, David. "Legal hallucinogen concerns police", The StarPhoenix, 2006-12-21. 
  • "No plans to regulate hallucinogenic sage in Canada", CBC News, 2006-07-28. 

US

  • Chicago Sun-Times editorial. "Lawmakers manage to outlaw licking an obscure plant", Chicago Sun-Times, 2007-12-31. Illinois.
  • Mitchum, Robert. "Clock ticking on sale of herb", Chicago Tribune, 2007-12-25. Illinois.
  • Wallace, Todd. "Indiana's Legal High: Teens Turned On To Powerful Drug", Indianapolis News (6News), TheIndyChannel.com, 2007-11-26.  Indiana (story includes online poll).
- Follow-up story: "Indiana's Legal High: Regulating Substance Faces Long Road", 2007-11-27. 
  • Lyles, Marianne & Lents, Amanda. "Update: 14 News Special Report: Legal High", WorldNow and WFIE, 2007-11-22. Indiana.
  • Ehinger, John. "'Sage of the seers'?", The Huntsville Times, 2007-10-22. Alabama.
  • Willis, Jonathan. "Local delegation wants ban on salvia", TimesDaily, 2007-10-18. Alabama.
  • Alberty, Erin. "Lawmakers don't touch hallucinogenic herb", The Salt Lake Tribune, 2007-10-17. Utah.
  • Robinson, Courtney. "Parent Discovers Child Has Hallucinogen Available Legally", ABC 13, 2007-09-27. Virginia.
  • Smith, Tracy. "Mom Says Legal Herb Killed Son", CBS News, 2007-09-25. 
  • Colindres, Adriana; and Dana Heupel. "Governor rejects airport proposal", Springfield State Journal Register, 2007-08-18. Illinois.
  • Baskin, Roberta. "Exclusive I-Team Investigation of a hallucinogenic drug that has begun to sweep the nation", abc7News(WJLA-TV), 2007-07-11.  Washington.
- related story:Tompkins, Al. "More Seeking Salvia, the Legal High (Q&A with WJLA-TV's Roberta Baskin)", The Poynter Institute, 2007-07-13. 
  • Allday, Erin. "Legal, intense hallucinogen raises alarms", San Francisco Chronicle, 2007-06-27. California.
  • Dhaliwal, Naveen. "Magic Mint", WETM TV 18, 2007-06-18.  New York. + related story link:"Herb poses dangers to users"
  • Martell, Chris. "Bill would ban sale of hallucinogenic Salvia divinorum", Wisconsin State Journal, 2007-06-18. Wisconsin.
- newspaper's full front page (pdf) + related story link:"Herb is as potent as LSD" + WSJ reader's opinions (as published).
  • Rose, Sontaya. "New High Sweeping Central Valley Teens", abc30ActionNews, 2007-05-10. California.
  • Williams, Adam. "Herb High", WHDH-TV-7News, 2007-05-09.  Massachusetts (Boston).
  • Chalmers, Mike. "Salvia's Banned, but now the tough part.", The News Journal (DelawareOnline), 2006-05-06. Delaware.
  • Tweed, Katherine. "Teens Use Salvia to Get High Legally", FoxNews, 2007-05-02. 
  • Miller, Matt. "9News Warning: Dangerous Legal Drug Sold in Tri-state Stores", abc9(wcpo.com), 2007-05-02. Ohio, Kentucky, Indiana.
  • Marsh, Melissa. "Salvia: Herb Stirs Debate", WXII-12News, 2007-05-01. North Carolina.
  • Setrakian, Lara. "Little-Known Drug Offers Legal High", abcNEWS, 2007-04-30. 
  • Connell, Lisa D. "Middlebury seeks ban on sale of herb", Rutland Herald, 2007-04-11. Vermont.
  • Guevara, Damian G. "Local cops seek ban on psychoactive herb", The Plain Dealer, 2007-04-06. Ohio.
  • Doerr, David. "Waco legislator trying to outlaw hallucinogen sold over the counter locally", Waco Tribune-Herald, 2007-03-12. Texas.
  • Eckenrode, Vicky. "Ban on mind-altering herb weighed in legislature", Savannah Morning News, 2007-03-08. Georgia.
  • Clark, Aaron. "Oregon lawmakers consider banning legal hallucinogenic", The Worldlink/Associated Press, 2007-03-05. Oregon.
  • Heupel, Dana. "Legislation to go after salvia plant", The State Journal Register, 2007-03-01. Illinois.
  • Masis, Julie. "Mexican drug gains U.S. following", Reuters, 2007-02-28. Boston.
  • Thomson, Marc. "Take a trip with Sally D", WoodTV8, 2007-02-27. Michigan.
  • Starks, Dan. "Teens finding legal way to get high", WNCN, 2007-02-27. Carolina.
  • Chalmers, Mike. "Legal high new worry for parents", The News Journal / DelawareOnline, 2006-02-26. 
  • Calvi, Mary. "Teens Turning To Salvia, The 'Legal' Hallucinogen", WCBS-TV, 2007-02-22. New York.
  • Grande, Alison. "Growing Alarm Over Hallucinogenic Herb", KIRO 7, 2007-02-22. Washington.
  • DeVine, Josh. "Locals sound off on Salvia issue", abc12(WJRT), 2007-02-21. Michigan.
  • DeVine, Josh. "New legal herb may do more damage than LSD", abc12(WJRT), 2007-02-19. Michigan.
  • O’Connor, Seamus. "Air Force bases ban salvia hallucinogen", AirForceTimes (+ArmyTimes+NavyTimes), 2007-02-16.
  • "New Drug Grows In Popularity With Youth", TurnTo23.com, 2007-02-16.
  • Sanchick, Myra. "Salvia: Underground Drug Getting Attention", Fox6News WITI-TV, 2007-02-15. Milwaukee.
  • Sanchick, Myra. "Salvia: The New Pot", Fox6News WITI-TV, 2007-02-14. Milwaukee.
  • editorial. "Military must ban Salvia", AirForceTimes (+ArmyTimes+NavyTimes), 2007-02-12.
  • Gaudiano, Nicole. "Nightmare herb?", AirForceTimes (+ArmyTimes+NavyTimes), 2007-02-12.
  • Gaudiano, Nicole. "Tales from the Salvia dark side", AirForceTimes (+ArmyTimes+NavyTimes), 2007-02-12.
  • Santiago, Jennifer. "Salvia: It's Legal, But Some Say Dangerous", CBS4.com, 2007-02-12.
  • Haskell, Meg. "Amended salvia bill limits sales", Bangor Daily News, 2007-02-08. Maine.
  • Medenbach, Deborah. "Police warn parents about hallucinogenic mint", recordonline.com, 2007-02-05.
  • "Lawmakers hear about a new drug", KXMBTV, 2007-01-31. 
  • Haskell, Meg. "Lawmakers hear arguments on salvia ban", Bangor Daily News, 2007-01-23 (story includes online poll).
  • Haskell, Meg. "Maine bill seeks regulation of legal hallucinogenic drug", Bangor Daily News, 2006-12-29.
- see also "State lawmaker wants to regulate new hallucinogenic drug", The Boston Globe, 2006-12-29.
- and "State officials hoping to ban sale of salvia herb to minors", Portland Press Herald, 2006-12-30.
  • Lowell, Robert. "Gorham legislator seeks Salvia ban", keepMEcurrent.com, 2006-12-17.
  • Quinones, Todd. "Deadly Dangers Of A Street Legal High", CBS 3 Philadelphia, 2006-11-30.
  • Dujanovic, Debbie. "Dangerous Herb is Legal in Utah", KSL, 2006-11-30. 
- Follow-up story: "Lawmaker Responds to Investigative Report on Dangerous Herb", 2006-11-28.
- Cardall, Duane. KSL Editorial, 2006-12-01.
  • Jensen, Anna. "D-E-A Issues Warning About Herb", ABC News Channel 13, 2006-11-17.
  • Blake, Katherine. "DEA Warns Over-The-Counter Drug Is Like Acid", CBS 4 Denver, 2006-11-13.
  • Edberg, Erika (email). "Salvia Divinorum: A legal herb, powerful like LSD, and available in Utah", ABC 4, 2006-11-05.
  • Shortsleeve, Joe. "Powerful Hallucinogenic Drug Legal Across Mass.", CBS 4 Boston, 2006-11-02.
  • "NJ to Crackdown (sic) on Salvia Use", WPVI-TV/DT(6abc.com), 2006-05-19.
  • Barnes, Audrey. "New High Can Be Deadly", WUSA9, 2006-06-30.
  • Elizabeth A., Davis. "Tennessee Mulls Ban of Hallucinogenic Herb", abcNews, Tennessee, 2006-05-05.
  • Pederson, Jason. Salvia divinorum, KATV7, Arkansas, 2006-04-27.
  • Cooper, Anderson. "Salvia: Legal but Lethal", CNN, 2006-04-13.
- viewer feedback - asx video (save & use media player).
  • "Cheap, Legal And Dangerous -- Salvia Hits Area", NBC10, 2006-04-11.  Delaware.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Legal_status_of_Salvia_divinorum". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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