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Lobelia



Lobelia

Lobelia erinus
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Campanulaceae
Subfamily: Lobelioideae
Genus: Lobelia
L.
Species

See text.

     

Lobelia is a genus of flowering plant comprising 360–400 species, with a subcosmopolitan distribution primarily in tropical to warm temperate regions of the world, a few species extending into cooler temperate regions.[1] English names include Lobelia, Asthma Weed, Indian Tobacco, Pukeweed, and Vomitwort.

Some botanists place the genus and its relatives in the separate family Lobeliaceae, others as a subfamily Lobelioideae within the Campanulaceae. The Angiosperm Phylogeny Group did not make a firm decision in this, listing the genus under both families.

Lobelia is probably the base form from which many other lobelioid genera are derived; it is therefore highly paraphyletic and not a good genus. For example, the Hawaiian species are part of a group including other genera that appear very different (see Hawaiian lobelioids). However, the group has not yet been studied adequately to rearrange the classification.[citation needed]

Lobelia species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including Setaceous Hebrew Character.

The genus is named after the Belgian botanist Matthias de Lobel (1538-1616).[1]

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Selected species

  • Lobelia aberdarica
  • Lobelia anatina – Southwestern Blue Lobelia
  • Lobelia anceps
  • Lobelia appendiculata
  • Lobelia assurgens
  • Lobelia berlandieri
  • Lobelia boykinii
  • Lobelia canbyi
  • Lobelia cardinalis (syn. L. fulgens) – Scarlet Lobelia
  • Lobelia chinensis
  • Lobelia comosa
  • Lobelia coronopifolia
  • Lobelia deckenii
  • Lobelia dortmanna
  • Lobelia erinus – Edging Lobelia
  • Lobelia flaccidifolia
  • Lobelia flaccida
  • Lobelia gaudichaudii
  • Lobelia gerardii
  • Lobelia gibberoa
  • Lobelia ilicifolia (syn. L. purpurascens) – Purple Lobelia
  • Lobelia inflata – Indian Tobacco
  • Lobelia kalmii
  • Lobelia keniensis
  • Lobelia laxiflora – Sierra Madre Lobelia
  • Lobelia leschenaultiana
  • Lobelia monostachya
  • Lobelia nicotianifolia
  • Lobelia niihauensis
  • Lobelia oahuensis
  • Lobelia persicifolia
  • Lobelia pinifolia
  • Lobelia puberula
  • Lobelia pyramidalis
  • Lobelia rhombifolia
  • Lobelia rosea
  • Lobelia sessilifolia
  • Lobelia siphilitica
  • Lobelia spicata
  • Lobelia telekii
  • Lobelia tenuior
  • Lobelia thapsoidea
  • Lobelia tupa
  • Lobelia urens
  • Lobelia valida
  • Lobelia zeylanica

Cultivation and uses

Several species are cultivated as ornamental plants in gardens. These include Lobelia cardinalis (Cardinal Flower or Indian Pink), Lobelia siphilitica (Blue Lobelia), Lobelia fulgens and Lobelia erinus, as well as some hybrids.

Lobelia erinus, a South African annual plant is often grown in window boxes and hanging baskets. Many varieties have been cultivated with a wide variety of colours.

In the Victorian language of flowers, the lobelia symbolizes malevolence and ill will.

Medicinal use

Native Americans used Lobelia to treat respiratory and muscle disorders, and as a purgative. Today it is used to treat asthma and food poisoning, and is often used as part of smoking cessation programs. It is a physical relaxant, and can serve as a nerve depressant, easing tension and panic. The species used most commonly in modern herbalism is Lobelia inflata (Indian Tobacco).[2]

As used in North America, Lobelia's medicinal properties include the following: emetic (induces vomiting), stimulant, antispasmodic, expectorant, diaphoretic, relaxant, nauseant, sedative, diuretic, and nervine.

Because of its similarity to nicotine, the internal use of Lobelia may be dangerous to susceptible populations, including children, pregnant women, and individuals with cardiac disease. Excessive use will cause nausea and vomiting. It is not recommended for use by pregnant women and is best administered by a practitioner qualified in its use.

Two species, Lobelia siphilitica and Lobelia cardinalis, were considered a cure for syphilis[3].

Herbalist Samuel Thompson popularized medicinal use of lobelia in the United States in the early 1800s, as well as other medicinal plants like goldenseal.[2]


One species, L. chinensis (called bàn biān lián, 半边莲 in Chinese), is used as one of the fifty fundamental herbs in traditional Chinese medicine.

References

  1. ^ a b Huxley, A., ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
  2. ^ a b Lobelia. EBSCO Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) Review Board (January 2006). Retrieved on 2007-09-12.
  3. ^ Guédon, Marie-Françoise (2000). Sacred Smudging in North America. Walkabout Press.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Lobelia". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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