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Ludwig Mond



Ludwig Mond

Statue of Ludwig Mond in Winnington, Cheshire
BornMarch 7, 1839
Kassel, Germany
DiedDecember 11, 1909
Regent's Park, London, England
ResidenceGermany, Netherlands, England
CitizenshipBritish
NationalityGerman
FieldChemist
InstitutionsBrunner Mond & Company
Mond Nickel Company
Alma materUniversity of Marburg
University of Heidelberg
Academic advisor  Hermann Kolbe
Robert Bunsen
Known forCommercial use of the Solvay process
Discovery of nickel carbonyl
Notable prizesGrand cordon of the Order of the Crown of Italy

Dr Ludwig Mond (March 7, 1839 — December 11, 1909), was a German-born chemist and industrialist who took British nationality.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Education and career

Ludwig Mond was born into a Jewish family in Kassel, Germany. After attending schools in his home town, he studied chemistry at the University of Marburg under Hermann Kolbe and at the University of Heidelberg under Robert Bunsen but he never gained a degree.[1] He then worked in factories in Germany and the Netherlands before coming to England to work at the factory of John Hutchinson & Co in Widnes in 1862. He worked in Utrecht from 1864 to 1867 and then returned to Widnes. Here he formed a partnership with John Hutchinson and developed a method to recover sulphur from the by-products of the Leblanc process, which was used to manufacture soda.[2]

In 1872 Mond met Ernest Solvay who was developing a better process to manufacture soda, the ammonia-soda or Solvay process. The following year he went into partnership with the industrialist John Brunner to work on bringing the process to commercial viability. They established the business of Brunner Mond & Company, building a factory at Winnington, Northwich. Mond solved some of the problems in the process that had made mass production difficult, and by 1880 he had turned it into a commercially sound process.[1] Within 20 years the business had become the largest producer of soda in the world.[2]

Mond continued to research new chemical processes. He discovered nickel carbonyl, a previously unknown compound, which could be easily decomposed to produce pure nickel from its ores through the Mond process.[3] He founded the Mond Nickel Company to exploit this. Ores from nickel mines in Canada were given preliminary enrichment there and then shipped to Mond's works at Clydach, near Swansea, Wales for final purification.[2]

Honours and benefactions

Mond supported scientific societies and, with Henry Roscoe, helped to expand the small Lancashire Chemical Society into the nationwide Society of Chemical Industry of which he was elected president in 1888. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1891. Abroad, he was elected to membership of the German Chemical Society, the Società Reale of Naples, and the Prussian Akademie der Wissenschaften. He received honorary doctorates from the universities of Padua, Heidelberg, Manchester and Oxford and was awarded the grand cordon of the Order of the Crown of Italy.[2]

He was a benefactor to a number of scientific organisations including the Royal Society, the Italian Accademia dei Lincei and the Royal Institution of Great Britain. In his will he left bequests to the town of Kessel and to a number of Jewish charities. In his later years he had built up a collection of old master paintings and he left the greater proportion of these to the National Gallery, London.[2]

Family and personal

In 1866 Mond married his cousin Freda Löwenthal with whom he had two sons, Robert and Alfred. In 1880 he took British nationality. While he was establishing his business the family lived at Winnington and in 1884 they moved to London. In his later life he spent most of his winters in Rome at his home there, the Palazzo Zuccari. He died in his London home in Regent's Park and was buried with Jewish rites at St Pancras cemetery where his sons erected a mausoleum. His estate was valued at £1 million.[2]

References

  1. ^ a b Weintraub, Bob (2003). "Ludwig Mond: Great Chemist-Industrialist; Alfred Mond (Lord Melchett): Great Zionist Leader", Bulletin of the Israel Chemical Society, Vol. 14, December, 2003, pp. 26–31. Online version retrieved December 13, 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Greenaway, Frank, (2004) 'Mond family (per. 1867-1973)', Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press; [1] Retrieved on 9 March 2007.
  3. ^ Ludwig Mond, Carl Langer, Friedrich Quincke (1890). "Action of carbon monoxide on nickel". Journal of the Chemical Society: 749-753. DOI
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ludwig_Mond". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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