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NOD mice

Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice are used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes.[1]



Non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice exhibit a susceptibility to spontaneous development of automimmune insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM)[2]. The NOD strain and related strains were developed at Shionogi Research Laboratories in Aburahi, Japan by Makino and colleagues and first reported in 1980 [3]. The group developed the NOD strain by selecting cataract-prone strains. The strain was then established by inbreeding.


Diabetes develops in NOD mice as a result of insulitis, a leukocytic infiltrate of the pancreatic islets. Onset of diabetes is assosciated with a moderate glycosuria and a non-fasting hyperglycaemia. It is recommended to monitor for development of gylcosuria from 10 weeks of age, this can be carried out using urine glucose dipsticks. The incidence of spontaneous diabetes in the NOD mouse is 60-80% in females and 20-30% in males. Onset of diabetes will also vary between males and females, commonly the onset is delayed in males by several weeks.


The susceptibility to IDDM is polygenic and environment exerts a strong effect on gene penetrances. Environment including housing conditions, health status, and diet all effect development of diabetes in the mice. Interestingly, the incidence of disease is much higher if the mice are maintained in a relatively germ-free environment.

NOD mice are also susceptible to developing other autoimmune syndromes, including autoimmunine sialitis, autoimmune thyroiditis, autoimmune peripheral polyneuropathy, a stystemic lupus erythematosus-like disease that develops if mice are exposed to killed mycobacterium, and prostatitis.


  1. ^ Non-Obese Diabetic (NOD) Mouse BAC Library. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. Retrieved on 2006-05-15.
  2. ^ Kikutani H, Makino S (1992). "The murine autoimmune diabetes model: NOD and related strains". Adv. Immunol. 51: 285–322. PMID 1323922.
  3. ^ Makino S, Kunimoto K, Muraoka Y, Mizushima Y, Katagiri K, Tochino Y (1980). "Breeding of a non-obese, diabetic strain of mice". Jikken Dobutsu 29 (1): 1–13. PMID 6995140.
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "NOD_mice". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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