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Neuregulin 1




Neuregulin 1
PDB rendering based on 1hae.
Available structures: 1hae, 1haf, 1hre, 1hrf
Identifiers
Symbol(s) NRG1; ARIA; GGF; GGF2; HGL; HRG; HRG1; HRGA; NDF; SMDF
External IDs OMIM: 142445 MGI: 96083 Homologene: 8509
RNA expression pattern

Additional recommended knowledge

More reference expression data

Orthologs
Human Mouse
Entrez 3084 211323
Ensembl ENSG00000157168 ENSMUSG00000062991
Uniprot Q15491 na
Refseq NM_004495 (mRNA)
NP_004486 (protein)
XM_620642 (mRNA)
XP_620642 (protein)
Location Chr 8: 31.62 - 32.74 Mb Chr 8: 33.28 - 33.48 Mb
Pubmed search [1] [2]

Neuregulin 1 or NRG1 is one of the four proteins of the neuregulin family that act on EGFR family of receptors. Neuregulin 1 is produced in numerous isoforms by alternative splicing, which allows it to perform a wide variety of functions. Neuregulin 1-ErbB4 interactions are thought to play a role in the pathological mechanism of schizophrenia.[1] The protein also has the putative ability to protect the brain from damage induced by stroke.[2]

By 2004, six major isoforms of neuregulin 1 were known:

  • Type I NRG1; alternative names: Heregulin, NEU differentiation factor (NDF), or acetylcholine receptor inducing activity (ARIA)
  • Type II NRG1; alternative name: Glial Growth Factor-2 (GGF2);
  • Type III NRG1; alternative name: Sensory and motor neuron-derived factor (SMDF);
  • Type IV NRG1;
  • Type V NRG1;
  • Type VI NRG1; Types IV-VI are proteins with 3 novel N-terminal domains identified in 2004.[3]

Link to schizophrenia

A number of studies have provided evidence of NRG1 gene relation to schizophrenia.[1][4] High-risk deCODE (Icelandic) haplotype was discovered in 2002 on the 5'-end of the gene by Stefansson et al.[5] The SNP8NRG243177 allele from this haplotype was associated in 2006 with a heightened expression of the Type IV NRG1 in the brains of people suffering from schizophrenia.[6][7]

References

  1. ^ a b Li D, Collier DA, He L. (2006) Meta-analysis shows strong positive association of the neuregulin 1 (NRG1) gene with schizophrenia. Hum Mol Genet; 15(12):1995-2002. PMID 16687441
  2. ^ Xu Z, Croslan DR, Harris AE, Ford GD, Ford BD (2006). "Extended therapeutic window and functional recovery after intraarterial administration of neuregulin-1 after focal ischemic stroke". J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. 26 (4): 527-35. doi:10.1038/sj.jcbfm.9600212. PMID 16136057.
  3. ^ Steinthorsdottir V, Stefansson H, Ghosh S, Birgisdottir B, Bjornsdottir S, Fasquel AC, Olafsson O, Stefansson K, Gulcher JR (2004). "Multiple novel transcription initiation sites for NRG1". Gene 342 (1): 97-105. doi:10.1016/j.gene.2004.07.029. PMID 15527969.
  4. ^ Gene Overview of All Published Schizophrenia-Association Studies for NRG1- SchizophreniaGene database, Schizophrenia Research Forum.
  5. ^ Stefansson H, Sigurdsson E, Steinthorsdottir V, Bjornsdottir S, Sigmundsson T, Ghosh S, Brynjolfsson J, Gunnarsdottir S, Ivarsson O, Chou TT, Hjaltason O, Birgisdottir B, Jonsson H, Gudnadottir VG, Gudmundsdottir E, Bjornsson A, Ingvarsson B, Ingason A, Sigfusson S, Hardardottir H, Harvey RP, Lai D, Zhou M, Brunner D, Mutel V, Gonzalo A, Lemke G, Sainz J, Johannesson G, Andresson T, Gudbjartsson D, Manolescu A, Frigge ML, Gurney ME, Kong A, Gulcher JR, Petursson H, Stefansson K.(2002) Neuregulin 1 and susceptibility to schizophrenia. Am J Hum Genet. 71(4):877-92 PMID 12145742 free full text
  6. ^ Law AJ, Lipska BK, Weickert CS, Hyde TM, Straub RE, Hashimoto R, Harrison PJ, Kleinman JE, Weinberger DR. (2006) Neuregulin 1 transcripts are differentially expressed in schizophrenia and regulated by 5' SNPs associated with the disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 103(17):6747-52. PMID 16618933 free full text
  7. ^ Hall J, Whalley HC, Job DE, Baig BJ, McIntosh AM, Evans KL, Thomson PA, Porteous DJ, Cunningham-Owens DG, Johnstone EC, Lawrie SM. (2006) A neuregulin 1 variant associated with abnormal cortical function and psychotic symptoms. Nat Neurosci. 9(12):1477-8. doi:10.1038/nn1795 PMID 17072305

Further reading

  • Lupu R, Lippman ME (1994). "William L. McGuire Memorial Symposium. The role of erbB2 signal transduction pathways in human breast cancer.". Breast Cancer Res. Treat. 27 (1-2): 83-93. PMID 7903175.
  • Corfas G, Roy K, Buxbaum JD (2004). "Neuregulin 1-erbB signaling and the molecular/cellular basis of schizophrenia.". Nat. Neurosci. 7 (6): 575-80. doi:10.1038/nn1258. PMID 15162166.
  • Harrison PJ, Law AJ (2006). "Neuregulin 1 and schizophrenia: genetics, gene expression, and neurobiology.". Biol. Psychiatry 60 (2): 132-40. doi:10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.11.002. PMID 16442083.
  • Munafò MR, Thiselton DL, Clark TG, Flint J (2006). "Association of the NRG1 gene and schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.". Mol. Psychiatry 11 (6): 539-46. doi:10.1038/sj.mp.4001817. PMID 16520822.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Neuregulin_1". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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