The assembled human DNA clamp, a trimer of the protein PCNA.
Available structures: 1axc, 1u76, 1u7b, 1ul1, 1vyj, 1vym, 1w60
OMIM: 176740MGI: 97503Homologene: 1945
• DNA binding • protein binding • DNA polymerase processivity factor activity • MutLalpha complex binding
• cyclin-dependent protein kinase holoenzyme complex • nucleus • nuclear lamina • DNA replication factor C complex • PCNA complex
• regulation of progression through cell cycle • DNA replication • regulation of DNA replication • DNA repair • base-excision repair, gap-filling • intracellular protein transport • cell proliferation • phosphoinositide-mediated signaling
RNA expression pattern
More reference expression data
NM_002592 (mRNA) NP_002583 (protein)
NM_011045 (mRNA) NP_035175 (protein)
Chr 20: 5.04 - 5.06 Mb
Chr 2: 131.94 - 131.94 Mb
Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen, commonly known as PCNA, is a protein that acts as a processivity factor for DNA polymerase delta in eukaryotic cells. It achieves this processivity by encircling the DNA, thus creating a topological link to the genome. It is an example of a DNA clamp.
The protein encoded by this gene is found in the nucleus and is a cofactor of DNA polymerase delta. The encoded protein acts as a homotrimer and helps increase the processivity of leading strand synthesis during DNA replication. In response to DNA damage, this protein is ubiquitinated and is involved in the RAD6-dependent DNA repair pathway. Two transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. Pseudogenes of this gene have been described on chromosome 4 and on the X chromosome.
PCNA was originally identified as an antigen that is expressed in the nuclei of cells during the DNA synthesis phase of the cell cycle
. Part of the protein was sequenced and that sequence was used to allow isolation of a cDNA clone . PCNA helps hold DNA polymerase delta (Pol δ) to DNA. PCNA is clamped  to DNA through the action of replication factor C (RFC) , which is a heteropentameric member of the AAA+ class of ATPases. Expression of PCNA is under the control of E2Ftranscription factor-containing complexes .
Role in DNA repair
Since DNA polymerase delta is involved in resynthesis of excised damaged DNA strands during DNA repair, PCNA is important for both DNA synthesis and DNA repair . PCNA is also involved in the switch to DNA damage bypass translation synthesis.
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