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A phosphorane is a functional group in chemistry with pentavalent phosphorus. It has the general structure PR5. The parent compound is the non-stable phosphoran PH5 or λ5-Phosphan (lambda5phosphan) according to IUPAC nomenclature. In the same vein Pentaphenylphosphoran Ph5P is properly named Pentaphenyl-λ5-Phosphan.
Phosphoranes adopt a trigonal bipyramidal molecular geometry with the two apical bonds longer than the three equatorial bonds. The accepted view for the chemical bonding taking place is that of a rehybridization in phosphorus of sp³ orbitals with a dz² to a new sp³p orbital. The dz² is considered very energetic and alternative theories attempt to explain this type of bonding better. In a three-center four-electron bond model two resonance structures along the apical bonds are X-...P+-X and X-P+...X- .
Phosphoranes of the type R3P=CR2 with a phosphorus carbon double bond or ylide are reagents in the Wittig reaction, for instance methylenetriphenylphosphorane or Ph3P=CH2.
Other phosphorus compounds are trivalent phosphines and tetravalent phosphonium salts.
Categories: Functional groups | Phosphorus compounds
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Phosphorane". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|