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Sergei Winogradsky



Sergei Winogradsky

BornSeptember 1, 1856
Kiev, Russian Empire
DiedFebruary 25, 1953
Brie-Comte-Robert, France
FieldMicrobiology
InstitutionsImperial Conservatoire of Music in St Petersburg (piano)
University of Saint Petersburg
University of Strasbourg
Pasteur Institute
Alma materUniversity of Saint Petersburg
Known forNitrogen cycle
Chemoautotrophy
Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria
InfluencesAnton de Bary
Nikolaj Menšutkin (chemistry)
Nevskia Famintzin (botany)
Martinus Beijerinck
InfluencedSelman Waksman
Martinus Beijerinck

Sergei Nikolaievich Winogradsky (or Vinogradskii; Russian: Сергей Николаевич Виноградский) (September 1, 1856- February 25, 1953) was a Russian microbiologist, ecologist and soil scientist who pioneered the cycle of life concept and discovered the biological process of nitrification, the first known form of chemoautotrophy.

Additional recommended knowledge

Winogradsky was born in Kiev, in what was then the Russian Empire, and entered the Imperial Conservatoire of Music in St Petersburg in 1875 to study piano.[1] However, after two years of music training, he entered the University of Saint Petersburg in 1877 to study chemistry under Nikolaj Menšutkin and botany under Nevskia Famintzin.[1] He took a diploma in 1881 and stayed at the University of St Petersburg to receive a degree of master of science in botany in 1884. In 1885, he began work at the University of Strasbourg under the renowned botanist Anton de Bary; Winogradsky became renowned for his work on sulfur bacteria. In 1888, he relocated to Zurich, where he began investigation into the process of nitrification, identifying the genera Nitrosomonas and Nitrosococcus, which oxidizes ammonium to nitrite, and Nitrobacter, which oxidizes nitrite to nitrate. He returned to St. Petersburg for the period 1891-1905 and there was chief of the division of general microbiology of the Institute of Experimental Medicine; during this period, he identified the obligate anaerobe Clostridium pastorianum, which is capable of fixing atmospheric nitrogen. In 1901, he was elected honorary member of the Moscow Society of Natural Science and, in 1902, corresponding member of the French Academy of Sciences. He retired from active scientific work in 1905, dividing his time between his private estate and Switzerland. In 1922, he accepted an invitation to head the division of agricultural bacteriology at the Pasteur Institute at an experimental station at Brie-Comte-Robert, France, about 30 km from Paris. In this period, he worked on a number of topics, among them iron bacteria, nitrifying bacteria, nitrogen fixation by Azotobacter, cellulose-decomposing bacteria, and culture methods for soil microorganisms. Winogradsky retired from active life in 1940 and died in Brie-Comte-Robert.

  Winogradsky is best known for discovering chemoautotrophy, the process by which organisms derive energy from a number of different inorganic compounds and obtain carbon in the form of carbon dioxide. Previously, it was believed that autotrophic organisms obtained their energy solely from light, not from reactions of inorganic chemical compounds. Winogradsky was one of the first researchers to attempt to understand microorganisms outside of the medical context, making him among the first students of microbial ecology and environmental microbiology. The Winogradsky column remains a fascinating display of chemoautotrophy and microbial ecology, demonstrated in microbiology lectures around the world.

Further reading

  • Waksman, S.A. 1946. "Sergei Nikolaevitch Winogradsky: The study of a great bacteriologist" Soil Science 62:197-226.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b Thornton, H.G. 1953. "Sergei Nicholaevitch Winogradsky. 1856-1953." Obituary Notices of Fellows of the Royal Society. 8(22):635-644.


Persondata
NAME Winogradsky, Sergei
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Microbiology
DATE OF BIRTH September 1, 1856
PLACE OF BIRTH Kiev, Russian Empire
DATE OF DEATH February 25, 1953
PLACE OF DEATH Brie-Comte-Robert, France
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Sergei_Winogradsky". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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