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Syntaxin



 

Syntaxins (syntaxin isotypes 1-4) are membrane integrated Q-SNARE proteins participating in exocytosis.

Additional recommended knowledge

Contents

Domains

Syntaxins possess a single C-terminal transmembrane domain, a SNARE domain (known as H3), and an N-terminal regulatory domain (Habc).

  • The SNARE (H3) domain binds to both synaptobrevin and SNAP-25 forming the core SNARE complex. Formation of this incredibly stable SNARE core complex is believed to generate the free energy required to initiate fusion between the vesicle membrane and plasma membrane.
  • The N-terminal Habc domain is formed by 3 α-helices and when collapsed onto its own H3 helix forms an inactive "closed" syntaxin conformation. This closed conformation of syntaxin is believed to be stabilized by binding of nSec1 (Munc18), although more recent data suggests that nSec1 may bind to other conformations of syntaxin, as well. The "open" syntaxin conformation is the conformation that is competent to form into SNARE core complexes.

Binding

Syntaxins bind synaptotagmin in a calcium-dependent fashion and interact with voltage dependent calcium and potassium channels via the C-terminal H3 domain. Direct syntaxin-channel interaction is a suitable molecular mechanism for proximity between the fusion machinery and the gates of Ca2 + entry during depolarization of the presynaptic axonal boutons.

Function

In vitro syntaxin per se is sufficient to drive spontaneous calcium independent fusion of synaptic vesicles containing v-SNAREs.[1] More recent and somewhat controversial amperometric data suggest that the transmembrane domain of Syntaxin1A may form part of the fusion pore of exocytosis.[2]

Genes

  • STX1A, STX1B, STX2, STX3, STX4, STX5, STX6, STX7, STX8, STX10, STX11, STX12, STX16, STX17, STX18, STX19

References and notes

  1. ^ Woodbury DJ, Rognlien K (2000). "The t-SNARE syntaxin is sufficient for spontaneous fusion of synaptic vesicles to planar membranes". Cell Biology International 24 (11): 809-818.
  2. ^ Han X, Wang CT, Bai J, Chapman ER, Jackson MB (2004). "Transmembrane Segments of Syntaxin Line the Fusion Pore of Ca2+-Triggered Exocytosis". Science 304: 289-292.
 
This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Syntaxin". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.
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