Uromodulin (uromucoid, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein)
|| UMOD; FJHN; ADMCKD2; HNFJ; MCKD2; THGP
| External IDs
|| OMIM: 191845 MGI: 102674 Homologene: 2522
| Molecular Function:
|| • calcium ion binding|
• GPI anchor binding
| Cellular Component:
|| • extracellular space|
• extrinsic to membrane
| Biological Process:
|| • cellular defense response|
• negative regulation of cell proliferation
| RNA expression pattern
Additional recommended knowledge
More reference expression data
|| NM_001008389 (mRNA)|
|| Chr 16: 20.25 - 20.27 Mb
|| Chr 7: 119.25 - 119.27 Mb
| Pubmed search
Uromodulin, also known as UMOD, Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), or Tamm-Horsfall mucoprotein, is a human gene.
This gene encodes uromodulin, the most abundant protein in normal urine. Its excretion in urine follows proteolytic cleavage of the ectodomain of its glycosyl phosphatidylinosital-anchored counterpart that is situated on the luminal cell surface of the loop of Henle. Uromodulin may act as a constitutive inhibitor of calcium crystallization in renal fluids. Excretion of uromodulin in urine may provide defense against urinary tract infections caused by uropathogenic bacteria. Defects in this gene are associated with the autosomal dominant renal disorders medullary cystic kidney disease-2 (MCKD2) and familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy (FJHN). These disorders are characterized by juvenile onset of hyperuricemia, gout, and progressive renal failure. While several transcript variants may exist for this gene, the full-length natures of only two have been described to date. These two represent the major variants of this gene and encode the same isoform.
THP is a GPI-anchored glycoprotein which is not derived from blood plasma, but is produced by the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle of mammalian kidney. While the monomeric molecule has a MW of approx. 68 kD, it is physiologically present in a highly agrregated state in urine. When this protein is concentrated at low pH, it forms gel. Tamm-Horsfall protein is the most abundant protein in mammalian urine. It is the matrix of urinary casts derived from the secretion of renal tubular cells.
Uropontin, nephrocalcin and uromodulin are the 3 known urinary glycoproteins that affect the formation of calcium-containing kidney stones or calculus.
The protein was first purified by Tamm and Horsfall from the urine of healthy individuals (Tamms I & Horsfall FL, 1950). It was later detected in the urine of all mammals studied.
The function of THP is not well understood. Studies using THP deficient mice revealed that THP may have a role in regulatory physiology and actually participates in transporter function . A role in bacterial binding and sequestration is suggested by studies showing that E.coli expressing MS (mannose-sensitive) pili or fimbriae can be trapped by Tamm-Horsfall protein via its mannose-containing side chains. Tamm-Horsfall protein is part of the matrix in renal calculi but a role in kidney stone formation remains debatable. Antibodies to Tamm-Horsfall protein have been seen in various forms of nephritis (eg, Balkan nephropathy), however, it remains unclear whether there is any (patho-)physiologic relevance to these findings.
- ^ a b Entrez Gene: UMOD uromodulin (uromucoid, Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein).
- Scolari F, Viola BF, Ghiggeri GM, et al. (2003). "Towards the identification of (a) gene(s) for autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease.". J. Nephrol. 16 (3): 321-8. PMID 12832729.
- Rindler MJ, Naik SS, Li N, et al. (1991). "Uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein/uromucoid) is a phosphatidylinositol-linked membrane protein.". J. Biol. Chem. 265 (34): 20784-9. PMID 2249987.
- Muchmore AV, Decker JM (1985). "Uromodulin: a unique 85-kilodalton immunosuppressive glycoprotein isolated from urine of pregnant women.". Science 229 (4712): 479-81. PMID 2409603.
- Pennica D, Kohr WJ, Kuang WJ, et al. (1987). "Identification of human uromodulin as the Tamm-Horsfall urinary glycoprotein.". Science 236 (4797): 83-8. PMID 3453112.
- Hession C, Decker JM, Sherblom AP, et al. (1987). "Uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein): a renal ligand for lymphokines.". Science 237 (4821): 1479-84. PMID 3498215.
- Prasadan K, Bates J, Badgett A, et al. (1995). "Nucleotide sequence and peptide motifs of mouse uromodulin (Tamm-Horsfall protein)--the most abundant protein in mammalian urine.". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1260 (3): 328-32. PMID 7873609.
- Huang ZQ, Kirk KA, Connelly KG, Sanders PW (1994). "Bence Jones proteins bind to a common peptide segment of Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein to promote heterotypic aggregation.". J. Clin. Invest. 92 (6): 2975-83. PMID 8254051.
- Rhodes DC, Hinsman EJ, Rhodes JA (1994). "Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein binds IgG with high affinity.". Kidney Int. 44 (5): 1014-21. PMID 8264130.
- Fukushima K, Watanabe H, Takeo K, et al. (1993). "N-linked sugar chain structure of recombinant human lymphotoxin produced by CHO cells: the functional role of carbohydrate as to its lectin-like character and clearance velocity.". Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 304 (1): 144-53. doi:10.1006/abbi.1993.1332. PMID 8323280.
- Jeanpierre C, Whitmore SA, Austruy E, et al. (1993). "Chromosomal assignment of the uromodulin gene (UMOD) to 16p13.11.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 62 (4): 185-7. PMID 8382593.
- Thomas DB, Davies M, Peters JR, Williams JD (1993). "Tamm Horsfall protein binds to a single class of carbohydrate specific receptors on human neutrophils.". Kidney Int. 44 (2): 423-9. PMID 8397318.
- Badgett A, Kumar S (1999). "Phylogeny of Tamm-Horsfall protein.". Urol. Int. 61 (2): 72-5. PMID 9873244.
- van Rooijen JJ, Voskamp AF, Kamerling JP, Vliegenthart JF (1999). "Glycosylation sites and site-specific glycosylation in human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein.". Glycobiology 9 (1): 21-30. PMID 9884403.
- Scolari F, Puzzer D, Amoroso A, et al. (1999). "Identification of a new locus for medullary cystic disease, on chromosome 16p12.". Am. J. Hum. Genet. 64 (6): 1655-60. PMID 10330352.
- Kamatani N, Moritani M, Yamanaka H, et al. (2000). "Localization of a gene for familial juvenile hyperuricemic nephropathy causing underexcretion-type gout to 16p12 by genome-wide linkage analysis of a large family.". Arthritis Rheum. 43 (4): 925-9. doi:<925::AID-ANR26>3.0.CO;2-B 10.1002/1529-0131(200004)43:4<925::AID-ANR26>3.0.CO;2-B. PMID 10765940.
- Pirulli D, Puzzer D, De Fusco M, et al. (2002). "Molecular analysis of uromodulin and SAH genes, positional candidates for autosomal dominant medullary cystic kidney disease linked to 16p12.". J. Nephrol. 14 (5): 392-6. PMID 11730273.
- Menozzi FD, Debrie AS, Tissier JP, et al. (2002). "Interaction of human Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein with Bordetella pertussis toxin.". Microbiology (Reading, Engl.) 148 (Pt 4): 1193-201. PMID 11932463.
- Zbikowska HM, Soukhareva N, Behnam R, et al. (2002). "Uromodulin promoter directs high-level expression of biologically active human alpha1-antitrypsin into mouse urine.". Biochem. J. 365 (Pt 1): 7-11. doi:10.1042/BJ20020643. PMID 11982485.
- Hart TC, Gorry MC, Hart PS, et al. (2003). "Mutations of the UMOD gene are responsible for medullary cystic kidney disease 2 and familial juvenile hyperuricaemic nephropathy.". J. Med. Genet. 39 (12): 882-92. PMID 12471200.
- Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, et al. (2003). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899-903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMID 12477932.