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Zhores Ivanovich Alferov (also Alfyorov) (Russian: Жоре́с Ива́нович Алфёров, IPA: [ʐɐˈrʲɛs ɪˈvanəvʲɪtɕ ɐlˈfʲorəf]; born March 15 1930) is a Russian physicist and Academic who contributed significantly to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics. He invented the heterotransistor. He is also a Russian politician and has been a member of the Russian State Parliament, the Duma, since 1995.
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Birth and education
Alferov was born in Vitebsk, Belarus, in a Belarusian-Jewish mixed family. In 1952 he graduated from V. I. Ulyanov (Lenin) Electrotechnical Institute in Leningrad (abbreviated to LETI). Since 1953 he has worked in the Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute of the USSR Academy of Sciences (Russian Academy of Sciences since 1991). From the Institute he earned several scientific degrees: a Candidate of Sciences in Technology in 1961 and a Doctor of Sciences in Physics and Mathematics in 1970. He has been director of the Institute since 1987. He was elected a corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences in 1972, and a full member in 1979. From 1989 he has been Vice-President of the USSR (Russian since 1991) Academy of Sciences and President of its Saint Petersburg Scientific Center. Since 1995 he is a member of the State Duma on the list of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He received 2000 Nobel prize in physics together with Herbert Kroemer, "for developing semiconductor heterostructures used in high-speed- and optoelectronics".
Alferov invented the heterotransistor. This coped with much higher frequencies than its predecessors, and apparently revolutionised the mobile phone and satellite communications. Alverov and Kroemer independently applied this technology to firing laser lights. This in turn revolutionised semiconductor design in a host of areas, including LEDs, barcodes readers and CDs.
Hermann Grimmeiss, of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, which awards Nobel prizes, said: "Without Alferov, it would not be possible to transfer all the information from satellites down to the Earth or to have so many telephone lines between cities."
Since 1962 he has been working in the area of semiconductor heterostructures. His contributions to physics and technology of semiconductor heterostructures, especially investigations of injection properties, development of lasers, solar cells, LED's, and epitaxy processes have led to the creation of modern heterostructure physics and electronics.
Alferov was elected to the Russian State Parliament, the Duma in 1995 as a deputy for the political party Our Home is Russia, generally considered to be supportive of the policies of President Boris Yeltsin. In 1999 he was elected again, this time as a member of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation. He was re-elected in 2003 and again in 2007, when he was placed second on the party's federal electoral list behind Gennady Zyuganov and ahead of Nikolai Kharitonov.
|This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License. It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Zhores_Alferov". A list of authors is available in Wikipedia.|